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* <* 





{Th« riifht t^ Traiulation i$ reaervcL) 


• « 

J« Billing, Printer and Stereotyper, Guildford, Surrey. 



The reader not altogether unfamiliar with the 
history of the last five centuries, will be aware that 
for more than a hundred years antecedent to the 
discovery of the passage to India by the Cape of 
Good Hope, the commerce of the eastern seas, 
so far as the rest of Europe was concerned, 
remained almost entirely in the hands of the 
Portuguese. The ancient Venetian commerce 
with India by the Red Sea had been speedily 
terminated ; while the trade carried on overland, 
vid Aleppo and the Persian Gulf, was in chief 
controlled by that power, then holding posses- 
sion of Ormus, through which it chiefly passed. 




Even the discovery made by the Spaniards of 
another passage to India by the Straits of 
Magellan, and the settlement which they made 
about the year 1570 in the Philippine Islands, 
did not tend very materially to interfere with 
the Portuguese monopoly. 

It was the desire to share in this eastern 
commerce — this traffic which made Lisbon the 
wealthiest and most populous city of Europe, — 
that led to so many attempts to discover a north- 
eastern, or a north-western, and even a northern 
passage to India, i. e,, directly over the pole. This 
was more for the sake of avoiding collision with 
the Portuguese and Spanish in trading to the east, 
th^n even the saving of distance. These attempts 
were at first confined to the English, beginning 
with that made by Sebastian Cabot on his third 
and last voyage from England. The Dutch 
and Belgians were long content to buy Indian 
merchandise at Lisbon, to resell in the north of 
Europe ; but after the union of the Spanish and 
Portuguese dominions in 1580, and the seizure 
which soon followed of the Dutch ships at 
Lisbon, and the exclusion of that country from 
any trade with Portugal, the Dutch began to 



entertain, even more eagerly than the English, 
the desire for a direct communication with the 

Drake, in his voyage round the world (1577 
— 80) outward by the Straits of Magellan, and 
homeward by the Cape of Good Hope, a track 
in which he was speedily followed by Cavendish 
(1586-8), led the way to the Indian seas. 
But the failure of Cavendish in a second attempt 
to pass the Straits of Magellan, as also the cap- 
ture in 1694 by Spanish- American cruisers of 
Sir Richard Hawkins's ship, served to keep up 
the terrors of that passage. Meanwhile, the 
English, in the person of Captain Lancaster, in 
1592, had accomplished the first voyage from 
British shores to India by way of the Cape of Good 
Hope. Between 1595 and 1598, the Dutch 
sent out eighteen vessels, with a view to opening 
up a trade with the east. The Dutch merchants 
were at that time more wealthy than those of 
England, and in those enterprises of theirs they 
obtained the services of several English sea- 

Attached to the expedition of '98 was one 
William Adams, of whom, as the first British 

B 2 


subject who visited Japan, I shall here speak. 
He was bom on the banks of the Medway, not 
far from Rochester, and at the age of twelve 
had commenced a seafaring life as apprentice 
on board a schooner sailing from Limehouse, 
near London. He remained twelve years in 
the service of the owner of this craft, and 
subsequently served for a short time in the 
British Navy. Then, for twelve years, he was 
employed by the Worshipful Company of the 
Barbary Merchants ; after which he entered, as 
we have seen, the Dutch service, and in the ca- 
pacity of chief-pilot over a squadron of five 

They left the Texel on the 24 th of June, 
and, on the 24 th of August, reached the Cape 
de Verde Islands, where they remained twenty- 
one days to refresh the men, many of whom 
were already afflicted with scurvy, including the 
captain of the fleet, who died immediately after 
the voyage was resumed. Encountering heavy 
weather and ill winds, they were forced to the 
coast of Guinea, where they landed on Cape 
Gonzalves, just south of the line. 

From this they sailed to the coast of Brazil ; 

I • 


but sighting soon afterwards the Island of 
Annabon in the Gulf of Guinea, they landed 
and took possession of the town there, which 
contained about a hundred houses. Having 
obtained a supply of cattle, fruits, and vege- 
tables, and having buried thirty-two of their 
men — victims to scurvy and fever — they de- 

The fleet remained two months on the 
African coast, and, after setting sail thence, 
five months more were occupied in reaching 
the Straits of Magellan, the crews during the 
greater part of that time having been on short 
allowance, and driven to such extremity as to 
eat the calf-skins with which the ropes were 
covered. Having entered the Straits, they pro- 
cured a good supply of penguins, upon which 
they fed ; but, in consequence of the commander 
stopping too long to take in wood and water, 
they were overtaken by the winter, which set in 
earlier than usual, and by this detention the 
fleet lost a hundred and five men by cold and 

When they did pass through the Straits, 
which took place at the end of September, they 


having been lying idle since the April previous, 
a violent storm came on, which separated the 
ships. The vessel on board of which was 
Adams, ran by Valdivia on her way to Mocha, 
and thence to the neighbouring island of Santa 
Maria, but anchored opposite an inviting and 
inhabited spot on the mainland. The crew 
here attempted a landing, but were met by a 
shower of arrows from the natives collected on 
the beach. 

Determined, however, to make another trial, 
they being in great want of water and pro- 
visions, twenty-three of them, when the beach 
was deserted on the day following, went ashore 
in two of the ship's boats. They at once pro- 
ceeded inland, when suddenly they were pounced 
upon by a swarm of natives who emerged from 
an ambush^ and every one of them was mas* 

With only two or three men on board, in- 
cluding Adams, the needy mariners drew an- 
chor, and sailed on to Santa Maria. There 
they found one of their fleet, but in distress as 
deep as they were themselves, having at the 
Island of Mocha lost their commander and 


twenty -seven men at the hands of the natives, 
in the endeavour to land and olitain provisions. 

From this, both vessels, after a consultation of 
those on board, sailed for Japan, a country in 
whose waters the Dutch flag had , never yet 
waved^ and known to the mariners in ques- 
tion only by remote hearsay. On their way 
they stopped at the Sandwich Islands^ to which 
eight of their men ran off with the pinnace, 
disgusted, no doubt, with the hardships of their 
life afloat. But it was a mere jump from the 
frying-pan into the fire^ as, by the report 
of a native who came on board the day after- 
wards, the fugitives were murdered soon after 
their landing. 

Sail was again set ; storms again assailed the 
feebly-manned vessels ; the one foundered, but 
the other, on board of which was Adams, 
sighted the hoped-for land when four men 
only were left of the crew : it proved to be the 
eastern coast of Ximo. The vessel was soon 
surrounded by Japanese boats, and those on 
board were escorted to Osaka, at which place 
they were incarcerated, but soon afterwards 


The next Dutch arrival in Japan was in the 
July of 1609, and consisted of a ship and 
yacht belonging to an expedition of thirteen 
ships which had left Holland in December, 
1607. This took place at the port of Firato, 
Isle of Ximo. The Dutch were well received, 
and sent a deputation to the Emperor's Court, 
with presents, in the name of the Stadtholder, 
and were successful in obtaining leave to esta- 
blish a factory at Firato, for the supply of which 
with goods the Dutch were also allowed to 
send a ship or two yearly. 

The larger of the two vessels soon afterwards 
again set sail, and arrived in the Texel in the 
July of 1610, bearing a letter of greeting from 
the Emperor of Japan to the King of Holland. 
The Dutch were in chief indebted for their 
success to Foyna Sama, King of Firato, who 
interested himself greatly in the establishment 
of a Dutch factory on his island. 

In the autumn of 1 608, the late governor of 
Manilla, while returning to New Spain in a 
galleon, was wrecked on the south-east coast of 
Nipon. In the first instance those on board 
knew not upon what land they had been 

^pi^pq^iV^HI^p^Vi-^Mi I I  ^l.^il^iii^^ Ul^ 

* w«'w^*^p^"»'»'^"?T '■ ■" -Jjg 


stranded. They, however, proceeded to a neigh- 
bouring viflage, the inhabitants of which mani- 
fested much commiseration and hospitality on 
their behalf, the women even shedding tears. 
They supplied them with food and clothing, and 
sent word to the tono, or official inspector of 
the district, who sent word that they should be 
well treated, but not allowed to remove from the 

They were soon visited by the latter, who 
came in great pomp, preceded by three hundred 
men, bearing banners, lances, matchlocks, and 
halberds. He saluted the shipwrecked governor 
with much ceremonious politeness, and pro- 
mised to dispatch a messenger to Jeddo, con- 
veying the details of the case to the imperial 
authorities there. 

The messenger returned in twenty-four days, 
charged with a message of condolence, with 
leave to visit the Court at that city. Setting 
out on their journey, the first town on their 
route was one of twelve thousand inhabitants, 
where dwelt the tono. The latter here took the 
governor to his castle, which was of massive 
and of picturesque construction, situated on a 

B 3 



hill-top, and surrounded by a moat fifty feet 
deep, crossed by a draw-bridge. The gates 
were of. iron, and the walls, of solid masonry, 
were eighteen feet in height by nearly the same 
in thickness. 

Near the first gate stood a hundred musket- 
eers in red and blue, and between that and the 
second gate, which opened through a second 
wall, were beautifully arranged houses and gar- 
dens. The apartments of the former, which 
were of wooden build, were exquisitely finished 
and adorned with a tasteful profiision of gold 
and s3ver lacquered work, carvings, and pic- 
tures. The travellers were well lodged and en- 
tertained along the entire road to Jeddo, the 
4ensity of the population much surprising them. 
The latter city received them with crowded 
streets and endless curiosity. A guard had to 
be placed in front of the house which had been 
prepared for their reception, so eager was the 
multitude to see, speak with, and examine them. 

Jeddo at that time contained only a million 
of inhabitants. It was traversed by a con- 
siderable river, navigable by vessels of mode- 
rate size, and by this river, which divided in 


the interior into several branches, the inhabit- 
ants were supplied with the agricultural and 
other produce of the country. The streets and 
squares were very handsome, clean, and well 
kept. The houses were of wood, and chiefly of 
two stories. These were less imposing exter-^ 
nally than they were magnificent and comfort- 
able within; towards the street they had co- 
vered galleries. Each street was occupied by 
men of the same class, from the princes down to 
the artizans : thus the carpenters had one — the 
jewellers another — the tailors a third, and so on, 
with all the other numerous trades. The mer- 
chants and traders occupied dwellings similarly 
allotted. Even every kind of produce had its 
particular place of sale. Rice was sold in one 
street, radishes in another — such were the sub- 

There was a market where game was sold, 
and at which boars and deer, hares and rabbits, 
plentifully abounded. The fish market was 
very extensive and beautifully clean and neat, 
and displaying a great variety of deceased swim* 
mers, and many living ones in tanks of water. 

Adjoining the tea houses stood numerous^ what 


we should call, livery and bait stables, where 
horses, either for sale or hire, were abundant. 

The nobles and great men inhabited a subur- 
ban part of the city, and their quarter was 
distinguished by armorial ornaments, sculptured, 
painted or gilt, placed over the doors of the 
houses — a privilege to which the Japanese no- 
bles attach great value, and to which, or some- 
thing very similar, the lower classes aspire, as 
was illustrated by the presence of such charms 
or heads over the doors of the houses at Simoda, 
and, but to a lesser degree, at Hakodada, men- 
tioned in the narrative of my first journey. In 
each street resided a magistrate, who took cog- 
nizance, in the first instance, of all irregularities, 
civil and criminal, submitting the more difficult 
cases to the governor or chief magistrate of the 
city, in whom was vested authority over all the 
other magistrates. 

The streets, fifty feet in width, were closed at 
each end by a gate, which was shut at nightfall. 
At each gate was stationed a guard of soldiers, 
with sentinels at intervals. Such was Jeddo — 
such in arrangement it is still, but it has grown 
and ripened under the influence of the inter. 



vening time, and instead of one million of in- 
habitants it has more than five millions, and 
covers with its suburbs eighty square miles of 

Two days after the arrival of the shipwrecked 
governor, the Ziogoon sent an invitation for the 
former to visit him. To his palace, therefore, 
the Spaniard took his way. It was enclosed by 
a wall of immense blocks of stone, with em- 
brasures at equal distances, well furnished with 
artillery. At the foot of this wall was a deep 
moat, crossed by a drawbridge of a peculiar 
and very ingenious construction. The visitor 
passed through two ranks of musketeers — about 
five hundred each — to the second wall, which 
was distant from the outer one some three hun- 
dred paces. At the gate four hundred lancers 
and pikemen were stationed. A thin wall, in 
height about twelve feet, was guarded by three 
hundred halberdiers. Within this was the pa- 
lace, having also the royal stables on one side, 
containing three hundred horses, and on the 
other an arsenal with arms for a hundred thou- 
sand men. Twenty thousand retainers were 
permanently attached to this one palace* 



The first apartment into which the governor 
was usheredi was entirely covered with rich 
ornaments, coloured crapes, velvet and gold ; 
carvings and lacquered wood embellished the 
roof and cornices, while the floor was covered 
with the customary fine matting. The walls 
were hung with picturesque representations of 
hunting scenes. Each subsequent apartment 
through which the party were led outvied its 
predecessor in splendour. Finally one was 
reached, in which the Ziogoon was seated on a 
superb cushion of crimson velvet, embroidered 
with gold, placed upon a kind of platform, raised 
two steps in the centre of the apartment. He 
wore three dresses of silk, one over the other, 
the outer one being rich in green and yellow ; in 
his sash were the two swords — the longer and 
the shorter. His hair was tied up with coloured 
ribbons, and shaven off in front after the ortho- 
dox manner. He was about thirty-five years of 
age, and distinguished by a light brown com- 
plexion, inclining to tawney. In fi>rm and 
figure he was well made and gracefiil, and 
about five feet ten in height. The governor 
was conducted to a seat on the left hand of the 


Ziogoon, who made many enquiries of him as 
to his country and the rest of the world, through 
a Portuguese interpreter. Pipes and tea were 
then introduced, and the Spaniard was dismissed 
with honours. 

Four days afterwards, the latter g^ain set 
out, and on a visit to the emperor at Miako, 
passing through Suraga en route. The entire 
way on either side was traversed by the popula- 
tion as in the most populous cities of Europe. 
The roads were lined on both sides by majestic 
pine apd cedar trees, which formed perfect 
avenues of shade. The disttoces were marked 
by small eminences planted with two trees ; 
towns and villages were constantly in sight. 

On arriving at Suraga^ which then contained 
a population of only six hundred thousand, a 
convenient residence was appointed for the 
strangers, which^ alike with that at Jeddo, was 
besieged by eager crowds curious to behold 
them. Here a messenger arrived from Miako, 
to convey the congratulations of the emperor to 
the visitors, as also with numerous presents. 
They were conveyed in a special palanquin of 
the highest dass from this to Miako,. where,, 


after the lapse of a week, an audience was given 
by his Majesty. 

The governor was conveyed from his ap- 
pointed house in one of the imperial palan- 
quins to the palace, which was a fortress like 
that at Jeddo. Taken in its entire, the dis- 
play was less attractive than at the court of the 
Ziogoon at Jeddo, but the pomp was greater, 
and there were more marks of awe, power, and 
pre-eminence. Following the minister into the 
presence of the emperor, the child of Spain, 
governor, and castaway, made a profound salu- 
tation, bowing low before his august majesty. 
The latter, in much magnificence of attire, oc- 
cupied ft square divan, whose sides glittered with 
choice and costly ornaments, and whose aspect 
was at once brilliant and luxurious. It was 
placed two steps above the floor, and surrounded 
at the distance of four paces by a lattice-work 
of frosted gold six feet in height, in which were 
small doors by which the emperor's attendants 
passed either in or out as they were signalled from 
the richly-arrayed but prostrate ranks of those 
present in the saloon. The monarch was nearly 
encircled by twenty of his principal officers dad 


in long silk mantles, and a sort of trousers of the 
same material ; they were seated after the usual 
manner, with their feet entirely concealed by their 
garments. The emperor was seated on an otto- 
manlike cushion of blue satin, worked with stars 
and half-moons of silver. In his sash he wore 
one sword only, and the surmounting tuft of his 
hair was tied up with velvet ribbons of various 
bright colours. His age appeared to beabout sixty. 
He was of the middle stature, and of full habit. 
His countenance beamed with intelligence, and 
was at once venerable and gracious, while in 
complexion he was even lighter than the Ziogoon. 
While the Spaniard remained in this the 
saloon of audience, a tono of high rank, i. e. 
prince commander of a district, was introduced. 
He had brought presents and revenue tribute in 
gold, silver, silk, and other things to a large 
amount. At a hundred paces from the throne 
he prostrated himself with his face to the floor, 
and remained in this posture for several minutes 
in perfect silence, during which time not a word 
was spoken by either emperor or subject. He 
then rose and retired, moving backwards, with his 
hands resting on his thighs, and together with his 


suite, consisting of three thousand persons, left 
the palace. After this, the Spaniard was con- 
ducted by two ministers to another apartment, 
whence other great olBBcers of state escorted him 
out of the palace with much ceremony. 

Afterwards he was entertained by the chief 
minister of the emperor at a magnificent repast, 
the prince pledging his health and doing the 
honours in the best of saki, by placing the porce- 
lain cup upon his head, a custom now nearly ex- 
ploded alike with the toast-making of our own 
land— a happy deliverance, I own. Deliver me 
horn a long-winded speaker at a wedding break- 
fast or elsewhere, and, still more, from a lord 
mayor's dinner. When will those municipal 
puppets, who, clad in the robes of office and sur- 
rounded by a hollow pageantry which belongs to 
the past rather than the present, And who for a 
year occupy a throne which awes not, commands 
not, that few care about, be cast down ? Look 
to the City of LfOndon, for instance ; it has its 
annual king, but why should it require such a 
phantom of power to worship, when the great 
City of London itself lies unrepresented by any 
^such president ; if either be necessary, the one 


is in as much need as the other. The fact, 
however, is, that the institution is an useless 

Few people live in the city ; it is a smoky 
wilderness of dingy streets, abounding only in 
shops and their keepers, offices and their occu- 
pants, the latter of whom, as a body, reside miles 
beyond it. True, it is plentiftiUy stocked with 
churches — gloomy old things, with gloomy yards 
fiill of crumbling remains, but who goes into 
them ? Let any one go into the city on a 
Sunday, and he will find the churches next to 
empty, and the streets and buildings as mourn- 
fully silent and deserted as though the city had 
just been ravaged by a plague. 

Our aldermanic brethren pride themselves 
too much upon precedent — ^upon the paltry past 
and the " petty present.^^ This is an age of 
progress and social revolution, and those who 
lag behind — men who boast of their adherence 
to the old school — ought to be superseded in 
the onward march of the new generation. He 
who thinks he has gained happiness or achieved 
his destiny in the present^ is not worthy of a 
better future. For my own part, I look^ 


beyond today, and the insignificant fleeting 
incidents thereof; but the future is rife with 
richer things ; we can more control its workings, 
and every man, alike with every nation, has the 
opportunity therein afforded him of moulding 
and directing his own destiny. 

To return to the Spaniard and the chief 
minister. On the day following that last men- 
tioned, the latter again invited him to an audi- 
ence and refreshment. In answer to wishes 
previously expressed by the stranger, the minister 
now informed him that the emperor had placed 
at the disposal of the shipwrecked men — the 
reader must understand that it was one thing 
to be stranded on the Japanese shores, and quite 
another and a much more serious affair to enter 
one of their ports under full sail, therefore the 
former, as unfortunate seafarers, were very hos- 
pitably dealt with — one of the ships, of Euro- 
pean model, which had been built by Adams, 
the Englishman, in which to proceed to New 
Spain. The Spaniard was grateful. The ship 
was at a port of Ximo, so to it he soon after- 
wards set out. Miako, at this time, had a po- 
pulation of about a million and a half. 


It was situated on slightly elevated ground, 
in the centre of an extensive plain, and its walls 
were ten leagues in circuit. It boasted of five 
thousand temples; in one of the latter was a 
colossal statue in bronze, the thumb even of 
which was too large for a man to encircle with 
both arms ; it was elaborately finished, and 
every limb and feature was as perfect and ex- 
pressive as the most talented painter could make 
a portrait. 

There was one temple then building, upon 
which a hundred thousand men were daily em- 

The temple and tomb of the emperor be- 
fore mentioned, — who dedicated the former 
to himself under the name of Taiko Sama, 
and established the regency on his death 
bed, in order to insure the succession of his 
son, — was entered by an avenue paved with 
jasper, four hundred feet in length by three 
hundred in width. On either side, at equal 
distances, were posts of jasper, on which were 
placed lamps that were lighted at sunset, and 
kept burning till sunrise. At the end of this 
passage was the peristyle of the temple, ascended 


by several steps, and having on the right a mo- 
nastery, the residence of priests. The prindpal 
gate was encrusted with jasper, and overlaid 
with gold and silver ornaments, skilfully wrought. 
The nave of the temple was supported by lofty 

There was a choir, as in European cathedrals, 
with seats and a silver grating all round. Male 
and female choristers chaunted the prayers. 
The shrines were illuminated with an assemblage 
of brilliantly coloured lamps. 

On entering the tomb from the sacred edifice 
six compartments had to be passed through, 
and as many sliding screens and curtains of 
white silk velvet withdrawn ; there the remains 
of the emperor were encased in a chest of unique 
construction and elaborate workmanship. The 
tomb was lined with plates of gold, and none 
but the high priests were allowed to enter its 

From Miako the Spaniard travelled by road 
and palanquin to Fucimi, where he embarked 
for Osaka, sailing thirty miles down the river of 
that name, which was as broad throughout as 
the Guadalquiver at Seville, and full of ship- 


ping. The latter city then contained a popula- 
tion of about a million. 

Here he embarked in a junk for Nagasaki. 
The appointed ship not being in proper repair, 
he was invited back to Suraga, where he en- 
deavoured, but without success, to bring about 
the expulsion of the Dutch, towards whom 
Spain in general was then hostile, and against 
whom he in particular was much prejudiced, 
stigmatizing, scandalising, and libelling them 
just as much as one Christian does another, 
very often, at the present day. But the Spa- 
niard, to speak in the vernacular, was as much 
a falsifier and dissimulator — I will not say a 
liar — as is any one of these same gossiping 
Christians. Finally, he set sail with presents 
apd despatches from the £lmperor to the King 
of Spain, on the second day of August, 1610, 
after a residence of nearly two years in the 



Let us recur, reader, to the new religion— the 
Portuguese missionaries and their converts. 
In the early part of the year 1614, another and 
more fatal edict was issued against the faith, 
which had revived and flourished again since 
the crucifixions at Nagasaki. The purport of 
the present order was, that all priests and mis- 
sionaries of the Roman religion should forthwith 
depart the empire, that all their houses and 
tabernacles should be destroyed, and that all the 
Japanese converts should renounce the foreign 
Catholicism. There were at this time in Japan 
about a hundred and thirty Jesuits, in possession 



of some fifty schools, colleges, and convents; 
also thirty fiiars of the three orders of St. Au- 
gustin, St. Dominic, and St. Francis, besides 
several secular ecclesiastics. The majority of 
these were immediately shipped away; some 
found means to return in disguise, but the per- 
secution assum ed a potent character which it 
was difficult to escape, and severe measur: s were 
taken against the native converts. Those who 
refused to renounce the religion of the mission* 
aries had their property confiscated, and many 
were banished into the mountainous districts of 
an island lying northward of Nipon, while 
others shared the worse fate of crucifixion. 

In 1616 the Emperor died, his son succeed- 
ing him. Even at this time— two years ulterior 
to the issue of the edict — th»e were still thirty- 
three Jesuits, sixteen friars of the three orders, 
and seven secular priests, who still, with the aid 
of native catechists, secretly continued to minis- 
ter to their adherents. Seven Jesuits, and all 
the fiiars save one, were in Nagasaki and its 
environs. Of the other Jesuits several resided 
in the other imperial cities where they still found 
protectors, while the rest travelled from place 

> VOL. II. C 


to place under various masks. Those at Naga- 
saki were disguised as Portuguese m^^hants, 
which latter were stiU allowed to trade. 

Subsequently, some of them even ventured 
to resume the habits of their order» and preach 
in public, the result of which was, the issue of 
another and more precise edict from the new 
emperor. It was rife with vengeance, and in-' 
spired terror in the minds of many converts who 
had hitherto failed in altogether renouncing the 
faith, and resulted in the betrayal of many of 
the remaining missionaries. All Catholic Europe 
now wailed over these misfortunes ; and the 
Pope^ on his Roman throne, looked down in 
sadness, and surveyed, in the cold majesty of 
his solitary woe, a people who had strayed from 
the fold never more to return. 

While the persecution of the Catholics was 
thus fiercely pursued in Japan, the Dutch, not 
only in that empire but throughout the eastern 
seas, were actively forcing a trade. 

The English at Firato bought junks and at- 
tempted commerce with Siam, where they had 
already established a factory, one of their first 
establishments in the east, as also with Cochin 






China and Corea, but the success which attended 
the endeavour was not great. In 1616, two 
small vessels arrived from England, one of which 
was employed in trading between Japan and Java. 
The operations of the Dutch at this time 
were on a much broader scale. They drove the 
Spaniards from the Moluccas, threatened the 
Philippines, and for a time blockaded Manilla. 
Five Dutch ships, of large size, arrived at Firato 
in the year last mentioned. In 1620, open 
hostilities were waged between the mercantile 
fleets of the English and Dutch in the eastern 
seas, commencing at Firato. In the same year, 
Adams, who had up to this time remained in 
the service of the newly-established Dutch East 
India Company at Firato, died. 

The reader must not suppose that any re- 
straint or prohibition was put upon him by the 
Japanese since his arrival in the empire, with a 
view to detaining him in Japan : on the con* 
trary, he had several offers made to him of a 
free passage to Europe, all of which he refused, 
preferring, as he did, the estate assigned to hini 
by the Japanese, and subsequently the one hun- 
dred pounds a-year from the Company, to the 

c 2 


uncertainty which would have attended a re^ 
sumption of his career in England. 

In 1622, the Spaniards were suspected of 
smuggling missionaries into the empire, and were 
thenceforward wholly forbidden to frequent the 
islands for any purpose whatever. In the same 
year fourteen Jesuits and two friars were burnt 
at the stake. Two years later, in order to guard 
against the concealment and smuggling of priests, 
a new and more severe as well as comprehensive 
edict was issued, by which all the ports of the 
empire, except Nagasaki and Firato, were closed 
against foreigners, the former port being appor- 
tioned to the Portuguese, and the other to the 
English and the Dutch, while both were left 
open to the Chinese. As an additional security 
against the introduction of missionaries, the 
policy was adopted of confining the Portuguese 
sailors and merchants to the artificial islet of 
Dezaim adjoining, and in the harbour of Naga- 

A few months after the issue of the edict last 
referred to, the people, the king, and nobles 
excepted of the kingdom of Arima, where the 
new faith had been all but universal, as a last 


resort broke out into open revolt. Headed by 
one of their ancient but ousted kings, they^'to 
the number of forty thousand, took possession 
of the fortress of Ximabara, situated at the head 
of a gulf of that name to the eastward of Na- 
gasaki. Here they were besieged by the impe- 
rial forces, captured, and slain to an individual. 
The Portuguese were accused, and rightly, of 
having encouraged this revolt, and, as a conse- 
quence, an edict was issued in 1638, which, in 
its effect, banished them without exception, and 
entirely forbidding also any Japanese to leave 
the empire, as had been the case in several 
instances. Their ships wjiich arrived soon after- 
wards, unaware of the new act, were boarded 
and served with a copy of the edict, and without 
being suffered to enter a port or effect a landing 
of either crew or cargo, were sent away again. 

The Portuguese, unwilling to give up so 
lucrative a trade without an effort to reinstate 
themselves, sent, through the corporation of 
ithe city of Macao, a deputation to solicit 
some modification of the edict. But these, to 
the number of forty*eight, out of the entire 
party of sixty-one, were crucified as violators 


of the very edict against which they had come 
to remonstrate. The thirteen who were spared 
were then sent back to Macao in the vessel 
by which they had come there to report the fate 
of the mission, and the determination of the 
empire against them. 

The Dutch rejoiced at the exclusion of the 
Portuguese. They expected to now enjoy a mo- 
nopoly. In 1641, however, they were placed 
under severe restrictions, and removed from 
Firato, and the roomy stone fort which they 
had there erected, to the occupation of the islet 
of Dezaim, the prison-house of the Portuguese. 
To this narrow island they have been confined 
ever since, occasional visits to Nagasaki and its 
environs, and the periodical journeys to Jeddo 

The goods imported by the Dutch to their 
Japanese factory were principally as follows: 
raw silk from China, Bengal, and Persia ; all 
sorts of silks, woollens, and other stuffs (cash- 
mere shawls excepted) ; Brazil wood ; buffalo 
and other hides ; skins, wax, and buffalo horns 
from Siam ; tanned hides from Persia and 
Bengal only; pepper; sugar, in powder and 


candied ; cloves and nutmegs ; camphor, from 
Borneo and Sumatra; quicksilver and cinna- 
bar ; lead and saffron ; saltpetre and borax > 
alum and musk ; gum benzoin and gum lac ; 
t^torax liquida and catechu ; fustic, corals, and 
amber ; right antimony, used for the colouring 
of chinaware ; looking*glasses and snakeweed ; 
mangoes, and other unripe East India fruits in 
vinegar pickle ; black-lead, and red pencils ; sub- 
limate of mercury (but no calomel) ; fine files 
and needles ; spectacles and large drinking 
glasses of the best kind only, together with 
stuflied birds, and other foreign curiosities. On 
the other hand, the exports from Japan con- 
sisted of raw gold, silver, and copper, barrels of 
native camphor, bales of porcelain and lacquer 
ware, boxes of gold thread, umbrellas, fans, and 
fire-screens ; wood and buffalo horns, the dried 
skin of whales, variously manufactured ; trans- 
parent paper, ditto covered with coloured de- 
signs, and used as ws^-paper ; rice, saki, and 
soy ; barrels of vinegar, pickled fi*uit, together 
with tobacco, tea, and marmalades. All other 
articles were prohibited exportation by the Japa- 
nese government. 


From this period Japan became tranquil, and 
again enjoyed that uninterrupted peace whieb 
originally and during a course of ages antecedent 
to its discovery by the Portuguese, with some 
isolated exceptions, had been a distinguishing 
feature of the empire. Fi^t» and potent, un- 
doubtedly, were the measures adopted for the 
eradication of the Roman Catholic religion, and 
the reclamation of the native converts ; but the 
impartial reader will have perceived that the 
restriction, although severe, was not altogether 
unjust or unduly harsh, considering the mis- 
sionaries as well as their aiders and abettors as 
the common enemies of the government and 
country as they indisputably were. For so strong 
had the popular faith in the doctrine taught by 
the Portuguese become, that nothing less than 
the succession of stringent measures adopted 
would have resulted in the overthrow of the 
invaders, who would have gradually spread with 
augmented numbers over the entire empire, and 
in all reasonable probability have usurped the 
government of the country, and made Japan a 
mere colony tributary to perfidious Spain. 



The internal affairs of Japan, politically and 
socially, from this time up presenting no striking 
incidents that would be of interest to the ge* 
neral reader, I shall proceed to review the course 
of subsequent events with regard to European 
communication with the empire. In the year 
1 700, the Russians made the first European 
discovery of the peninsula of Kamtschatka, 
stretching from the southern point of which the 
Kurile islands were seen and explored, the dis. 
covery of Japan following in the train of con- 
sequences. In 1713 the Cossack, Kosierenski^ 
reached Konashir, one of the Kurile group. 


lying off the north-eastern coast of Jesso, and 
under the control of the Japanese* 

In 1736 a Dane in the Russian service 
visited all the southern Kuriles, coasted the 
island of Jesso^ and sailing on to Nipon, entered 
several natural harbours on its eastern coast. 
These explorations were renewed by Potonchew 
in 1777) but it was not till ten years later that 
La Perouse made his survey of the sea of Japan, 
and ascertained the relative positions of Jesso 
and Sagaleen, and of the strait dividing them, 
which now bears his name. 

In 1791 an English ship, the Argonaut, en- 
gaged in the North American fur trade, sailed 
close under the western shore of Nipon, and 
attempted to trade ; but she was surrounded by 
lines of boats, boarded by ofBcials, and dis. 
missed with a gratuitous supply of wood and 
water, no one on board being allowed to land. 

In 1796-7, Captain Broughton, in an English 
exploring vessel, coasted the southern and 
eastern shore of Jesso, sailed along the southern 
Kuriles, and touched at several places on the 
southern part of Sagaleen. 

Antecedent to the voyage last mentioned^ 


Russia had made a first attempt at a commer- 
cial and diplomatic intercourse with Japan. The 
crew of a Japanese vessel wrecked in the sea of 
Okotsk, had been saved by the Russians about 
1782, and taken to Irkatsk in Siberia, where they 
remained for ten years, at the end of which 
time the governor of that territory was directed 
by the Empress Catherine II. to send the ship- 
wrecked men back to their own country, and 
with them an envoy. 

In the October of 1792, the party landed on 
the northern coast of Jesso^ and passed the 
winter there, after which they entered the har- 
bour of Hakodadi, from which they travelled 
by land to the city of Matsmai, three days' 
journey to the westward. The envoy was 
treated with great courtesy, but informed that 
he was liable to perpetual imprisonment for 
having violated the laws of the empire, which 
assigned the port of Nagasaki only for the en- 
trance of foreigners; but that in his case 
the intention being a good one, and his de- 
fence ignorance of the imperial enactments, 
he would be exempted from such punishment, 
on condition of his confining his future Ja* 


paoese visits to Nagasaki. He was then 
missed with presents, and bis yessd gratuitously 

In 1790 the Dutch were limited to a single 
ship annually, while, to accommodate their ex- 
penditure to this diminution in the trade, they 
were allowed to make the hith^o annual em- 
bassy to Jeddo quadriennial. 

The occupation of Holland at this time, by 
the French army, not only exposed Dutch 
vessels tP capture by the English, but cost 
the former kingdom several of her eastern co. 
lonies, and thus placed new obstades in the way 
of the trade with Japan. It was to diminish 
the danger of capture by the British, that in 
1797 the regular ship dispatched from Batavia 
.sailed under the American flag, and carried 
American papers, while the master feigned to 
be a born Yankee, and called his ship the Eliza 
of New York. On leaving Nagasaki, on her 
return trip, this vessel being laden with copp^ 
and camphor, struck a sunken rock and found- 
ered. The first endeavour made to raise the 
vessel was by sending down divers to bring up 
the copper ; but, owing to the suflfbcating effect 

mmmmmmmmmmmm^m^^mm'^'^^^immmmmmmi^mmmmut iim 


of the melting camphor, two men lo^t their 
lives in the attempt, after which the plan was 
abandoned. Several modes of operation were 
resorted to, but without success, till at last a 
Japanese fisherman, with an ingenuity worthy 
of his country, undertook to recover both vessel 
and cargo. He fastened, by means of ropes, 
to each side of the sunken craft about a dozen 
of the native boats ordinarily used in towing, 
and to the stern, by similar means, a large 
coasting junk, when, availing himself of a high 
tide and stiff breeze, he spread sails and handled 
the sculls, so dragging the hidden ship from the 
rock, and towing her into a spot where at low 
tide she was discharged without difficulty, re- 
loaded, and put to sea again. In reward for 
this service the fisherman was raised to the 
rank of a noble, privileging him to the right 
of wearing two swords ; as also to take as 
his coat of arms a Dutch hat, and two to- 
bacco pipes. Thus it will be seen that merit 
meets with its reward as well in Japan as 
in the majority of cases it does elsewhere. 

In October 1804, a Russian vessel, having 
on board an ambassador and several ship- 


wrecked Japanese, entered the harbour of 
Nagasaki. This was the second overture of 
the Russian government to open relations with 
Japan, and twelve years ulterior to the dispatch 
of the envoy before named, with a similar 
batch of imperialists. Contention, however, 
arose from the moment of entering the harbour. 
The Japanese demanded the guns and ammu. 
nition belonging to the ship, and required pros- 
trations from the northmen as representatives 
of his supreme majesty the Mikado ; upon which 
three points the Russians were unwilling to 
agree. In consequence of this, the matter was 
referred to Jeddo, and those on board were im- 
prisoned till the return of an answer, a cere- 
mony which occupied nearly six months, during 
the first two months and a half of which they 
were all confined entirely to their ship ; then, 
however, the Ambassador and his suite of seven 
were allowed to land on a small islet, where a 
house had been fitted up for them ; but the rest 
of the Russians were kept on board during the 
whole time, the ship being constancy surrounded 
with guard boats. 

The answer fi'om Jeddo was borne by a 


Special commissioner, immediately after whose 
arrival the ambassador was taken on shore in 
the barge of the Prince of Figen, the governor of 
the district, and from the steps of the landing- 
place he was conveyed to the governor's house, 
in the norimorif i.e, palanquin of the Dutch fac- 
tory-director, borrowed for the occasion ; but all 
his suite had to walk. 

The answer returned to the Russians, both 
on the points alluded to, and as regards the 
establishment of commercial relations with the 
empire, was in every way unfavourable, and 
amounted to a flat refusal to have anything to 
do with them ; even their presents were refused. 
But all this was done with the utmost show of 

The presents were declined, owing to the 
circumstance of their acceptance necessitating 
a corresponding return at the hands of an am- 
bassador similarly dispatched, which the strict 
law in force for the previous hundred and fifty 
years against any Japanese subject or vessel 
going to foreign countries, precluded their doing. . 

As regarded the subject of trade, Japan, 
said the governor, had few or no wants, and 



litde, if any, occasion for the produce of other 
lands; the Dutch supplied whatever the arti- 
ficial tastes of the people called for, and under 
such circumstances he trusted that the Russian 
government would abandon the prospect of 
establishing commercial relations with Japan. 
He thanked them, in the name of the Emperor, 
for bringing home his shipwrecked countrymen, 
but in future these were not to be sent back, 
unless in Dutch or Chinese vessels ; in conclu- 
sion, he wished them health and glory, and a 
happy deliverance from all their enemies. 

The ambassador, disappointed and indignant, 
left the port immediately afterwards, and sailed 
to Okotsk, from which place he dispatched two 
small Russian vessels to make reprisals on the 
Japanese. They sailed along the coast of Saga- 
leen in 1806, and the year following, landing 
their crews and plundering the Japanese settle- 
ments on that island, with which loot they 
loaded their vessels ; also making prisoners of 
and carrying away several Kuriles and two 
Japanese, and leaving behind them written 
notifications, in Russian and French, that this 
had been done in revenge for the slights 


ibair ambassador had received when at Na- 

At this time there was at Irkutsk a Japa- 
nese professorship, established by Catherine IL, 
and filled by a shipwrecked Japanese who had 
embraced the Greek religion. 

In 1807 the ship Eclipse, of Boston, char* 
tered at Canton by the Russian-American Com- 
pany for Kamtchatka and the north-west coast 
of America, entered the bay of Nagasaki under 
Russian colours, and was towed to the anchor- 
age by an immense number of boats. A 
Dutchman boarded the ship, and advised the 
hauling down of the colours, as the Russians 
were not at all in favour with the Japanese. 

The latter declined trading, and enquired 
what the vessel wanted. * ''Water and pro- 
visions,'* was the answer ; upon which a plenti- 
ful supply of fish, hogs, vegetables, and tubs of 
water were sent on board gratuitously, according 
to the invariable rule pursued in that respect, 
after which the vessel was. towed out again. 

In the October of 1 808, and about the time 
when the annual Dutch vessel was expected, a 
ship appeared off Nagasaki, when two Dutch- 


men belonging to the &ctory, followed by the 
usual Japanese officers in another boat, pro- 
ceeded to board her. The Dutchmen were met 
by a boat from the ship, and invited, in their 
own language, to ascend the ladder. They 
then, seeing that it was not their expected 
vessel, declined till the Japanese boat came up ; 
they were, however, conducted on board the 
vessel, which proved to be the English frigate 
Phaeton, Captain PeDew, in search, as it ap- 
peared, of the annual Dutch ship. 

The Japanese boat returned to Nagasaki 
without having communicated with the stranger, 
and sprea^i at once a report which aroused the 
whole town and islet factory. 

In the meantime, the Phaeton was threading 
her way into the harbour, without either leader 
or pilot. The governor of Nagasaki was in 
high wrath. At the harbour guardhouse, 
where a thousand men ought to have been 
under arms, there were found only seventy, 
and these were uncommanded. 

To what country did the stranger belong ? 
Why did the Japanese boarding officers return 
without ascertaining that information ? While 


all was uproar and consternation, the fr^ate 
anchored, and before reaching the inner harbour ; 
a boat was then sent ashore with a letter from 
one of the two Dutchmen detained, saying that 
the strange vessel wanted provisions and water. 
The governor was little disposed to yield to 
so imperative and abrupt a demand ; and re- 
solved, if possible, to detain the ship till junks 
and men could be assembled to attack her. On 
the afternoon of the day following, one of the 
Dutchmen, escorted, was sent on shore with a 
written request for provisions and water, and a 
threat to sail in, and bum the shipping in the 
harbour, if such were not supplied. 

The demand was complied with by the in- 
dignant governor, after which the two Dutchmen 
were liberated. The former was still intent 
upon avenging the insult and discourtesy of those 
concerned with the frigate. One scheme was 
to prevent her depart\u*e by sinking vessels laden 
with stones in a certain narrow part of the 
channel — ^a second to fire her by means of a 
flotilla of boats filled with blazing reeds and rice 
straw, the prince of Omura at their head. But, 
while these plans were being discussed, the frigate 


weighed anchor and departed. The governor 
was in dismay at having administered no retri- 
bution, and a tragical scene immediately suc- 
ceeded the two vessels* departure. The former, 
to save himself from impending disgrace, cut 
himself open, as also did several officers of the 
harbour guard. The Prince of Figen — the se- 
cond governor — although at Jeddo at the time, 
was imprisoned a hundred and twenty days for 
the negligence of his servants at Nagasaki in not 
maintaining the proper guard, and he was also 
adjudged to pay an annual pension to the son of 
the self-executed governor. 

By this unceremonious conduct of Captain 
Pellew the Japanese were rendered more than 
ever averse to holding intercourse with foreigners, 
and as much prejudiced against the British as 
they had previously been against the Russians. 

I may mention that the ships consigned to 
the Dutch from the year 1799 to 1803 inclusive, 
had been Americans. The renewal of the war 
in Europe having then once more driven the 
Dutch flag from the seas, the ships of 1806 
liad been an American and a Bremener; and 
those of the year following, an American and a 

" ^^ W~S~, , 


Dane; one of the two ships of 1809 was also 
an American. Up to the year last mentioned 
the ships from Batavia had arrived regularly at 
Nagasaki; but from that time till 1813 neither 
sail nor report reached the lonely inmates of the 
islet factory. During this time their European 
costume had become ragged, and their pro- 
visions scarce. They had to wear the fabrics 
of Japan, and use native oil instead of Bremen 
butter ; and very gloomy, indeed, looked the 
isolated children of the land of windmills 
and canals. Great was their delight, however, 
when, in the March of 1813, the long-hoped- 
for vessels hove in sight, making the private 
signals which had been agreed upon after the 
visit of Pellew. Visions of butter in abundance, 
and cheese and Haarlem beer, beguiled in fas* 
cinating prospect the minds and cloudy imagi- 
nation of the Hollanders, and the stupid fellows 
chuckled again with joy, as, redolent of garlic, 
they waited the welcome craft. The honey, 
however, did not come without the bees, and 
the latter were disposed to sting ; for a boat was 
sent off to the factory, announcing the presence 
on board of the successors of these said Dutch- 


men, who were declared by its terms to be su« 

The letter was signed by one Raffles, t. e. 
Sir Stamford Raffles, of whom they had never 
heard before ; but who signed himself Lieutenant 
Grovemor of Java and its dependencies. 

They were filled with amazement. Imme^ 
diately, one of them rowed away to the ship 
from which the letter had been sent, to ask who 
Raffles was. He found them, with two ex- 
ceptions, to be all Englishmen on board. 

**Who is Raffles?" said he, in a yard of 
incoherent Dutch. 

He was then, to his dismay, informed that 
Holland had been annexed to France, and that 
Java had been simultaneously occupied by the 

HoDand to France ! no, never. They might 
tell that to a Spaniard, but a Dutchman wouldn't 
believe it. He declined obedience to an order 
coming from a colony in hostile occupation. 

If the Japanese were to hear of the En- 
glish being in possession, they would massacre 
every one of them, and bum their ships. The 
result was, indeed, that the secret travelled no 


further ; where heads are in danger, people can 
keep a secret remarkably well ; I almost believe 
that under such circumstances even a woman 
could resist her natural inclination to *' confiden- 
tially " divulge. Some of the new officers sent 
out were to remain, but in positions subordinate 
to the Dutch, and under the feigned character of 
natives of the United States. 

In 1814, a ship arrived from Batavia, having 
on board the British envoy who had borne the 
alarming letter of the previous year. She 
brought intelligence of the insurrection in Eu- 
rope against France, and the probability of Java 
being soon s^in restored to the Dutch. This 
was done in order to make the Dutch director 
of the factory resigned to the British order of 
things for a short time. But no, the old Hol- 
lander refused to obey the mandates of the 
English governor of Java. The consequence 
was, that the latter sent no more ships, and the 
Dutchmen were left once more ^' alone in their 
glory" during the three years following. 

During this time the Japanese government, 
having to contribute to the wants of the factory, 
turned the services of the cheese-eaters to a 



good account. They were set to work, with 
the aid of ten interpreters, in the compi- 
lation of a Dutch and Japanese dictionary for 
the use of the Japanese men of science 
and the imperial interpreters. The work 
was completed, and a copy deposited in 
the national library at Jeddo. A transcript, 
imperfect, however, was subsequently made by 
a factory official, from the original rough draft 
of the work, and who, on his return home in 
1829, deposited it in the Royal Museum at 

In 1811, the Russian sloop of war, Diana, 
commanded by Captain Golownin, was com- 
missioned to make a survey of the southern 
Kurile Islands. Having anchored in a bay on the 
southern end of Kunasher, the twentieth island 
of the group, where the Japanese had a settle- 
ment and well-garrisoned fort, he and his party 
went on shore, when, being met by the Japanese, 
they were invited into the fort and made pri- 
soners. They were, in the first instance, bound 
with a species of noose and cords, and then con- 
veyed, partly by junk and partly by palanquin, 
and on foot, to Hakodadi, where they were 



treated with much hospitality and politeness, 
and rather as guests than prisoners. 

This capture was weU merited by the Russians 
for their base plunder of the Japanese settlements 
in 1806-7, as well as the violation of the imperial 
law against vessels entering any port other than 
Nagasaki. The narrative of the Russian officer 
in question has been long published to the 
world, and I have therefore nothing more to 
say of him, further than that he was, after a 
confinement of a little more than two years, 
delivered up to the new Russian commander of 
his old ship, the Diana, with a written notifica- 
tion that in future any Russians entering the 
ports of Japan, would be received with cannon 

In 1818, two vessels arrived at Nagasaki 
from Batavia, bringing intelligence of the resto- 
ration of the latter to the Dutch, as also some 
butter, cheese, and beer, to reinvigorate the 
drowsy frames of the officials of the factory. 
Great was the delight of the old expostulator, 
who, years before, had asked in such high dud- 
geon who Raffles was. 

There was on board one of these ships A 



Woman I and, what was still worse, there was a 
child with her also. She was the wife of Herr 
somebody, who had come out to succeed the old 
expostulator before named ; but this time 
according to his own expectation and desire, 
his term of office as director having expired. 
This importation of feminine humanity was a 
novelty which took the Japanese no less by 
surprise than it alarmed them. AH Japan 
would be soon alive with young Dutchmen if 
these were allowed to land. After much consulta* 
tion, however, she was allowed to land, but on 
condition only that she took her departure, 
child in arms, on the return of the ship by 
which she came. And this was done, the wife 
returning to Batavia, and the husband remain- 
ing at Nagasaki. '' What a shame !" said all 
the women of Batavia, in Dutch, when the wife 
returned, and the fact became noised abroad. 
It u;(i«, ladies, " infamous 1 cruel 1" I quite agree 
with you. 

^^^•^gmmm m 



Shortly after this renewal of the old Dutch 
intercourse, i. e.y in June 1818, a small English 
trading brig from Okotsk, under the com- 
mand of a Captain Gordon, attached to the En- 
glish navy, entered the bay of Jeddo. He was 
immediately boarded by several officers, who 
enquired what he wanted, where he came from, 
and to what country he belonged. His reply 
to the first question was, that he had merely 
come to solicit the privilege of being allowed to 
bring a cargo of goods for sale. The Japanese, 
with the most winning politeness, informed him 
that such could not be allowed, and that w*ith 

D 2 


his permissioD, (or without it also,) they would 
unship the rudder of his craft, and take pos* 
session of whatever arms and ammunition he 
had on board. 

The vessel was then made the centre of a 
circle formed by twenty boats, which were again 
enclosed within another circle of a hundred l)oats, 
besides half-a-dozen junks mounting several guns 
each. Two interpreters had come on board, 
one speaking Dutch, and the other English, and 
both a little Russian. They made kind en- 
quiries after the health of Napoleon Buonaparte, 
the King of England, and the King of the Dutch 
community, about all of which the captain was 
but little better informed than themselves. 
However, he answered them ; after which they 
began to criticise his nautical instruments. 
** Whose your instrumentalist ?" asked the En- 
glish interpreter. The captain was puzzled, but 
said they were of the best London make, and 
referred him to the name and address engraved 
thereon. They knew all about them, it was 
unnecessary for the captain to explain their uses. 
Would he smoke a pipe ; they were sorry that 
he could not be allowed to remain with them 


or visit them again, but such was contrary to 
the laws of their country. They hoped he 
would depart — in fact he must depart with the 
first fair wind. The Japanese bowed, and 
smiled, and ..handed him some tea to drink ; and 
when the fair wind came they sent on board 
everything which had been taken away — his 
rudder, his guns, and his ammunition ; and 
while two thousand boats hovered round his 
tiny craft, and the shore was lined with people, 
each as curious as the other, he was towed out 
of the bay by fifty native boats, and was soon 
as much at sea as before. 

In 1830, some English convicts on board the 
brig Cyprus, bound for New South Wales, muti- 
nied, and obtained possession of the vessel. After 
sailing about for some months, they anchored off 
the Japanese coast, and were at once fired at 
from the forts, which compelled them to take 
their departure without the required assistance. 

In the year following, three Japanese, the 
only survivors of the crew of a junk which 
had been driven by stress of weather across 
the Pacific, landed on Queen Charlotte's 
Islands on the north-west coast of America. 


Here they were taken into captivity by the 
natives, but released through the laudable inter** 
ference of one of the servants of the Hudson's 
Bay Company, and ^pped direct to England. 
From this they were again shipped to Macao, 
where they were taken charge of by an English 
missionary. Soon afterwards, four other Japa-^ 
nese, who had been wrecked on the Philippine 
Islands, were brought to Macao. The position 
of these- men seemed to offer a good oppor- 
tunity for opening communication with Japan, 
and accordingly an American mercantile house 
at that place fitted out the brig Morrison and 
dispatched her with the Japanese on board 
under the protection of two Ph>testant mis- 

On the 27th of July, 1837, the lonely vessel 
ploughed her solitary way into the outer bay of 
Jeddo, up which she proceeded thirty miles as 
far as Uragawa, on the west coast of the bay. 
She was soon boarded by a number of officials, 
but all of an inferior class, and was brought to 
an anchor at sunset, about three quarters of a 
mile from the shore. During the night, how- 
ever, cannon were planted on the nearest emu 


nence, and firing commenced; a proceeding 
which induced a retreat, the persecuted vessel 
being pursued by three gun-boats, each handled 
by forty men, who industriously occuf^ed them- 
selves in firing swivels. The Morrison, how- 
ever^ escaped without much injury. The Japa- 
nese informed the rest of those on board that 
these unpleasantries would have been obvis^ted 
had they been allowed to commuqicate with 
their countrymen; instead of which, they hnd 
been kept close prisoners, out of sight, since 
entering the bay. So much for the policy of 
those concerned. 

After cruising about the sea of Japan for 
some time, the Morrison was steered into the 
bay of Kangosima, in the prmcipality of Sat- 
suma. The vessel was hove-to . in a small 
indentation beneath the frown of a high and 
rocky shore, beyond which extended far and 
wide a panorama of hills terraced with cul- 
tivation and beautiful with verdure. A boat 
was i)ere sent from the brig to a Japanese 
fishing. vessel, which it accompanied to> a village 
a little higher up the bay, where the people 
were found in great commotion^ The vessel 


foDowed, and was soon boarded by a two- 
sworded official in magnificent atlire, accompa* 
nied by numerous attendants. The shipwrecked 
Japanese were then presented to him, upon which 
he informed those on board that preparations 
had been made to fire upon them, but as their 
representations appeared to be satisfactory^ he 
should stay proceedings and communicate with 
his superior officer ; in the meantime he could 
not allow the returned Japanese to land. 

The vessel remained in the bay till the morning 
the 1 2th of the following month, when warlike 
preparations were seen going forward on shore ;. 
sheets of blue and white canvas were stretched 
from tree to tree in front of the town. These, 
the Japanese on board informed the rest, por- 
tended hostilities. They were not intended, as the 
Americans have supposed, to delude the strangers 
into the idea of their being forts, but simply as 
defences ; for it appeared that there were four or 
five of these sheets one behind the other, so that 
the force of a cannon ball would have been con- 
siderably weakened, if not entirely repelled, by 

Officers on horseback and several hundred 



soldiers soon made their appearance on the 
scene, and a fire of musketry and artillery was 
as quickly commenced. The anchor was at 
once weighed and sail spread, but owing to the 
absence of a land-breeze, the ship was exposed, 
without any means of resistance, to a continuous 
fire from both sides of the bay. Fortunately 
it was from three to five miles broad, so that by 
keeping in the middle part she was comparatively 
removed from danger. The Japanese, with rueful 
visage, bewailed their position, and two of them 
shaved their heads entirely. The result of all 
this was, that the Morrison returned direct to 
Macao, having the Japanese still on board. 

In 1845, the British surveying frigate 
Samarang entered the harboxu* of Nagasaki. 
As she approached, she was surrounded by 
numerous guard-boats, from one of which was 
handed a letter written in Dutch and French, 
directing her to be anchored off the entrance 
till visited by the authorities. With great dif- 
ficulty permission was then obtained to land for 
the purpose of making astronomical observa- 
tions, but the officials requested that this privilege 
might not be asked again till their superiors 


were Gommunicated with. They Btked for this 
purpose a stay of two days. The captain of* 
fered to wait four days if they would allow his 
observations to be continued ; this, however, 
they declined, saying that such would be on 
their part a violation of the laws 1^ which they 
were governed. 

The vessel was, roeanwbik, abundantly sup- 
plied with such provisions as were required, and 
aU on board were eulogistic in favour of the 
Japanese officials, whose dignified, courteous; 
and respectful demeanour commanded at once 
their attention and esteem. 

In the same year, the American whaler, Mer- 
cator, whfle cruising among the northern islands 
of Japan, met with a sinking junk, from which 
she took eleven Japanese sailors, and twelve 
more from a neighbouring rock, to which they 
had escaped. I1ie Captain of the whaler took 
them on to the bay of Jeddo, where he was 
surrounded by about four hundred boats, which 
took the ship iii tow as far as the town of Oda- 
warra, in front of which she was anchored, 
and her guns taken on shore. Here she was 
guarded for three days, and visited by many 


boats and people, at the end of which time a 
notification arrived from Jeddo, informing the 
Captain that it was contrary to the laws of the 
empire for shipwrecked Japanese to be brought 
home in any save Dutch or Chinese vessels, 
but, in consideration of his ignorance of such, 
^ he would, on this occasion, be suffered to de- 
part in peace, but that quickly. 

Water and provisions were then amply sup- 
plied, and the Yankee whale-chaser was politely 
hurried to sea again, her gUns on board, and a 
flotilla of bo^ts, a mile and a half long, towing 
her to the mouth of the bay, their banners 
streaming gaily in the breeze, and sounds of 
pleasant music floating lightly on the air. 

On the 20th of July, 1848, the Columbus 
ship of the tine, and the Vincennes frigate, both 
American, anchored in the bay of Jeddo ; they 
remained till the 29th, when they were served 
with a notification in Japanese and Dutch, ex- 
planatory of the laws of the empire with 
regard to foreigners, and requesting their im* 
mediate departure. Provisions and water having 
been supplied, the request was at once com-* 
plied with. 


On the day previous (the 28th), two Frendi 
ships of war, the frigate Cleopatra and a cor- 
vette, on a surveying expedition, had entered 
the harbour of Nagasaki ; but having been sur- 
rounded with boats, and refused all intercourse 
with the shore, they departed within twenty- 
four hours. 

On September, 1848, a junk arrived at Na- 
gasaki with fifteen foreign seamen from Mats- 
mai; they were conveyed ashore, and thence 
carried in dose kangos, or palanquins, to a 
temple fixed for their abode, and round which 
a high palisade was erected, no communication 
being allowed between them and the people. 
Eight of them were Americans, and the remain- 
ing seven Sandwich Islanders. They had be- 
longed to an American whaler which had struck 
a shoal in the sea of Japan, and gone to pieces 
soon afterwards. 

The fact of their existence at Nagasaki 
having been communicated to the American 
commissioner at Canton, the sloop of war, 
Preble, was dispatched to tmng away these 
• driftlings. She arrived off the harbour of Na- 
gasaki on the 17 th of April. Some native 


boats at once came alongside, and threw on 
board a bamboo, in the split of which were 
papers containing the customary notifications to 
foreign vessels, as to their anchorage and the 
conduct they were to observe, as also certain 
questions which those on board were required 
to answer. One set of these Japanese papers 
were written in English, four Dutch words ex- 
cepted, a verbatim copy of which I append.* 

• 1 . •* Warning to respective commanders, their officers 
and crew, of the vessels approaching the coast of Japan, 
or anchoring near the coast in the bays of the empire. 
Daring the time foreign vessels are on the coast of Japan, 
or near, as well as in the bay of Nagasaki, it is expected 
and likewise ordered, that every one of the schip'a com- 
pany will behave properly towards, and accost civilien 
the Japanese subjects in general. No one may leave 
the ve88le, or use her boats for cruising or landing on 
the islands or on the main coast, and ought to remain 
on board until further advice from the Japanese Govern- 
ment has been received. It is likewise forbidden to fire 
guns, or use other fire arms on board the vessle, as well 
as in their boats. Very disagreeable consequences might 
result in case the aforesaid schould not be strictly ob- 

(Signed) ' ** The Governor of Nagasaki.'^ 

2. (This was addressed like No 1) ^' By express 
orders of the Governor of Nagasaki, you are requested. 


The ship was boarded soon afterwards by a 
Japanese interpreter, with seven attendants, who 
gave directions in English as to her anchorage. 
After this, another two-sworded official came on 
board to receive the answers to the questions 
contained on the papers just mentioned, and 
who made many enquiries. The sloop was 
then surrounded by guard boats, and the usual 
offer of supplies was made. 

On the 26th the fifteen wrecked seamen 
were delivered up by the Japanese to the Ame- 

as soon as you have arrived near the northern cavallos, 
to anchor there at a safe place, and to remain till you 
have received further advice. Very disagreeable conse- 
quences might result in case 1;his order should not be 
strictly observed." Here followed a seal, a signature, 
and the symbol of the interpreter. 

3. (This was addressed like No. 1 also.) '' Please to 
answer as distinctly, and as soon as possible, the follow- 
ing questions : What is the name of yoar vessh ? Whajt 
her tonnage ? What is the number of her crew ? Where 
do you come from ? What is the date of your departure? 
Have you any wrecked Japanese on board ? Have you 
anything to ask for, as water, fire, wood, provisions, &e.? 
Are any more vessels in company with you bound for 
this empire ? By order of the Governor of Nagasaki.** 
Here followed two seals, and the same interpreter's 



lican, and at the same time a document was 
handed to her captain, stating that as the Dutch 
and Chinese were alone allowed to bring home 
their own shipwrecked manners, so the vessels 
of these countries would in future alone be per- 
mitted to take away the mariners belonging to 
other countries shipwrecked oh the Japanese 
coasts ; and of this he was requested to take 

Five weeks after the departure of the Preble, 
and on the 29 th of May, the British surveying 
ship, Mariner, was anchored in the Bay of 
Jeddo, off the town of Uragawa, having been 
escorted by ten boats, who took her in tow 
from the mouth of the bay. A iset of papiers 
written in French and Dutch had, in the first 
instance, been thrown on board, requesting her 
captain not to cruize or anchor in the bay ; but 
finding that he heeded not their instructions, 
they adopted the alternative of thus accompany- 
ing him. He was, however, refused permission 
to land, and was watched from guard boats and 
the fortifications on shore throughout the 

On the day following,, having made some 

 i w 


soundings, he sailed across the bay to Simoda, 
where he effected some surveys, but was only 
allowed to land on the beach for a short time, 
being conjstantly watehed by the boarding officers 
and military attached to the forts. After this, 
he was supplied withfresh provisions and towed 
out again, having made a stay in the bay of 
three days. 

On the 8th day of July, 1853, the United 
States fleet, consisting of four vessels under the 
command of Commodore Perry, first entered 
the outer bay of Jeddo, having called at Lew- 
Kew on the way. The narrative and results of 
that expedition, however, having been already 
published, it is unnecessary for me to do more 
than make mere mention of the fact. Of events 
ulterior to this it is out of my province to 

Connected with foreign intercourse with the 
empire of which I write, the review already made 
is such that additional comment on my part is 
unnecessary, and having thus said, I enter once 
more the streets of Nagasaki. Reader, let us go 




The city of Nagasaki is of a half-moon 
shape, and built along the shore in a valley 
formed by the opening of the neighbouring 
mountains. The latter are more precipitous 
than lofty, but gashed with indentations and 
covered with inviting verdure. Immediately 
behind the city, approaching the mountain 
sides, reposes a beautiful panorama of stately 
temples, to the number of seventy — their coni- 
cal roofs rising in pleasant antithesis vnth the 
more massive scenery around. Each has its 
gardens and terrace walks, and in the rear its 
necropolis. Mountain rises beyond mountain. 


misty and indistinct in the distant background, 
and contributes to the imposing majesty of the 
view. Three streams roll down from these 
elevations, and eddy their way through the 
town, which, like other Japanese towns, is with- 
out either walls or fortifications ; the latter being 
all situated lower down the bay. Some bas- 
tions are built along the harbour, but they are 
unprovided with cannon. 

The rivulets dluded to are crossed by thirty- 
seven bridges of great strength and beauty, the 
majority of which are of stone. 

The city is divided into two parts, which again 
are sub-divided into wards. The first of these, 
Utrimatz, or the inner town, consists of twenty- 
six streets, and the second, Sotomatz, or the 
outer town, of sixty-one streets, making alto- 
gether eighty-seven, besides several squares, 
and other enclosures. Each street contains 
al>out sixty houses. 

The palaces of the two resident governors 
occupy a large space of elevated ground ; they 
are exceedingly handsome structures, although 
somewhat crumbling in the lap of age. There 
are, besides other palaces, three streets, the 


houses of which are assigned U>, and entirely 
occupied by, the nobility of the plaee^ and these 
are the handsomest structures in Nagasaki. 

The city, down to the year 1688, had, like 
the rest of the imperial towns, two governors, 
commanding in rotation^ the one off duty being 
for the time resident at Jeddo. 

In that year, however, a third governor was 
created, in order that two might be always pre-» 
sent at Nagasaki, relieving each other every two 
months as regards active service, while the 
third was to come in each alternate year from 
Jeddp to take the place of the senior resident of 
the two, who then proceeded to Jeddo on his 
vocation, liable, however, to be called upon for 
the transaction of any business connected with 
the city which he represented. Here he could 
rejoin his wife and family, ueither of which 
were allowed to leave Jeddo during his absence 
on imperial duty, they being held as hostages 
till his return. 

£ach of these governors maintains, by impe« 
rial command, an extensive retinue, including 
ten Torika, — officers of noble*blood, commanding 
their appointed troops ; two karoo, or steward^ 


of the household ; and thirty Doosiu, a dass of 
oflScers military and civil, of inferior rank to 
the former, but above the rest of the household. 
The business of the Torika is to assist the 
governor with their advice, if required, and to 
execute his commands either in the capacity of 
military officers or as magistrates. Each of the 
latter maintains, as necessary to his dignity, a 
pike-bearer, a keeper of the great sword, and a 
sandal-bearer. The Doosiu are assistants to the 
Torika. They serve as guards, and do duty on 
board ship, especially in the guard boats. Each 
of these is required to maintain a servant. 

At the entrance to the palace of a governor a 
guardis kept, consisting of four or five Doosiu. 
No domestic can leave the palace without taking 
from its place in the guard -room a square 
wooden tablet, which he must hang up again on 
his return, so that it can be seen at a glance 
what servants are absent. Within the great 
door, or main entrance into the palace, another 
guard is kept by some of the Torika, one of 
whom has charge of a book, in which he enters, 
as is the custom at the houses of persons of 
rank, the names of those who pass in or out 


The governor's equipage and attendance, when 
he leaves the precincts of his palace, consists of 
a led horse, by the side of which walks four of 
the gentlemen of his bedchamber, and behind 
it two pike-bearers, followed by a train of Karoo, 
Torika, and Doosiu, with their servants and 

Next in rank to the governors are four local 
presidents or mayors, whose office is hereditary, 
in addition to which there are two deputy mayors, 
principally to represent the affairs of the new 
town. These were formerly chief magistrates, 
but their authority has been comparatively 
eclipsed since the creation of the triumvirate. 

There are also four other officers annually 
appointed to solicit the interest of the town's 
people at the court of the governors, and to keep 
the latter informed of the proceedings of the 
mayors, for which purpose they have an apart- 
ment at the palace of the acting governor, where 
at least one of them is in constant attendance. 
There is no town hall or other place of public 
assembly, so that when these officers meet on 
business it is invariably at the house of the pre- 
siding mayor. Besides the various bodies of 


interpreters and others connected with the fo- 
reign trade, there is a particular corporation of 
constables, consisting of the men of some thirty 
or forty families, who all reside in the one street, 
apart from the rest of the inhabitants. Their 
office is reputed military and noble, and they 
have the privilege of wearing two swords, a 
right which the mayors, alike with the mercan- 
tile classes, do not possess. 

The tanners, who are likewise the public ex- 
ecutioners, and who are held in great execration, 
are also allowed to wear two swords, by virtue 
of their office. They live in a separate village 
near the place of execution, which is situated at 
the western extremity of the city, alike with all 
other tanners and all other places of execution 
in every other town throughout the empire, 
In Japan a tanner is looked upon as a wretch 
fit only to dwdl with tanners, and these despised 
men always fcx'm a separate community, aloof 
from the rest of the population. 

The inhabitants of the waterside streets of 
Nagasaki supply the Funabaw or ship guard 
with the boats necessary for watching the foreign 
fihips that enter the bay. There is another 


fleet of boats commonly employed in whale- 
fishing, but whose duty is also to see all vessels 
of the latter description wdl off the coast, to 
report their approach, and to prevent smuggling. 

Then there is a spy-guard stationed in an 
observatory and signal-fort situated at the top of 
a neighbouring mountain, there to keep a look- 
out for foreign craft, while on the summit of an 
adjoining hill is a beacon, which, when lighted, 
serves, in connection with other similar beacons, 
to telegraph to Jeddo, in a short space of time, 
the colour and shape of the light exhibited, 
being indicative of the cause of alarm, or other- 
wise, for which the telegram is made. 

The householders of every street are arranged 
in companies of five or more, each street having 
about fifteen such associations. None but laud- 
lords are admitted into these corporations, each 
of which has one of its number at its head, who 
is to some extent responsible for the conduct of 
his four companions. The members of these 
clubs choose fi'om among themselves an Ottono 
or chief magistrate of the street, the choice of 
which is by ballot, and the person having the 
greatest number of votes being presented to the 


governor with a humble petition that he may be 
appointed to the office, which latter is not without 
its emoluments. The duty of the Ottona is to 
give the necessary instructions in the event of a 
conflagration breaking out, as well as to inspect 
tile watch, and keep a register of births, mar- 
riages, and deaths, of departing and arrivals, 
and all the events of the time and district ; to 
arrest violators of the laws, and to arbitrate 
upon or punish their misdeeds, in the event of 
the latter being only of a trifling character, as is 
generally the case; also to settle all disputes 
arising between people in his particular street. 
He has to assist him in the performance of these 
duties three lieutenants, besides the heads of the 
corporations of householders, a secretary, a 
treasurer, and a messenger. 

A guard is kept every night of two sentinels, 
each having his station at one of the two gates 
denoting their boundary, and marching towards 
his companion of the watch till they both meet, 
when they march back again, and so repeat the 
ceremony, moving to and fro till the time ap- 
pointed for their relief, or, if it be daylight, the 
suspension of the watch. These guardians 


iodicate the successive hours by bell-Uke sig- 

The Japanese division of time is peculiar. 
The day, from the dawn to the end of the 
evening twilight, is divided into six hours, and 
the night, from the begwning to the end of 
darkness, into six hours also. The length of 
these hours is necessarily subject to constant 
variation as the seasons change. The end of 
this period or sixth hour, whether occurring at 
noon or midnight, is called the Kekouet, the 
second division Yoots, the third Nauats, the 
fourth Montsdouki, the fifth Itsous, and the 
sixth Souki. 

Every year a list is made out by the street 
officers of all the inhabitants in each street, 
with mention of their religion— Sintoo or 
Buddhist ; and with this list the street officers 
visit every house, followed by attendants, bear- 
ing a small box, containing a crucifix, and 
an image of the Virgin Mary, which, as each 
house is entered, are placed upon the floor and 
trampled upon by its inmates. Children, too 
young to walk, are lifted so that their feet may 
come in contact with the image and the cross. 

VOL. II. £ 


In no other town of the empire does this cus- 
tom linger besides Nagasaki, and even there the 
ceremony is becoming obsolete. 

The reader will have no difficulty in tracing 
ihis to the Portuguese missionaries, and the 
disastrous religious wars of their period, events 
which naturally have prejudiced the ruling 
classes of Japan, even to hatred and contempt, 
against the innovations of foreign priestcraft. 



The reader has not forgotten the picture of 
Nagasaki bay by moonlight, nor my noble com- 
panion Noskotoska and the theatricals, but it 
is long since I left them behind ; and as to me 
the once familiar face, and the once &miliar 
scene, are things I love to greet again, so now 
do I welcome once more the prospect of their 
presence. Visions of burning boat^s, dancing 
to and fro in th^ realms of space, haunted my 
slumbers on my second night at Nagasaki ; but 
I awoke early, and refreshed, and after the enjoy- 
ment of a cool, invigorating bath, went on deck 
to feast my eyes on the surrounding scenery. 

E 2 


The air was ddiciously warm, without being op- 
pressive ; the sky presented the same vault of 
unruffled blue as on the preceding day; the 
hills and mountains were arrayed in the same 
golden light which suffused the waters of the 
tranquil bay. 

All was peace and beauty ; placid and sub- 
lime. The imposing majesty of nature's mo- 
numents were as things holy. The verdiu^ of 
the mountains, the azure of the sky, the glit- 
tering roofs of palace and temple, the hundreds 
of stately junks, and still more numerous boats, 
all combined beneath the inspiring light of that 
flashing sky to make glad and jubilant the 
spirit of man. And glad and jubilant was I, 
cheered but not intoxicated by the splendours 
of the morning. 

I am now in London, where fashion and 
famine pass each other by in the streets, and 
flaunting wealth and pallid poverty jostle each 
other in the crowd; and, alas! it is winter, 
cold, gloomy, and inhospitable ; yet that land- 
scape, as seen from the deck of that frigate,, 
beneath the glad light of that glorious morn, 
is vividly before me, cheering my mental gaze. 


and enhancing the pleasures of retrospection. 
But how different is the element by which I 
am now surrounded. I am supposed to be in 
the heart of the highest civilisation extant, in 
the centre of enlightenment, in the great city 
of the world ; but how saddening the result 
when I for a moment turn aside to siirvey the 
working of its society, and the machinery of 
that civilisation ; what unprotected misery do I 
not meet with ; what homelessness and breadless- 
ness ; what vice and infamy ; how incomplete 
the fabric, how lamentable its construction. 
Why are those thousands who sleep under 
bridges and archways, and in hundreds of other 
such places, hungry, desolate, and perishing in 
1-ags, not provided for ? Why is there such a 
waste of life and labour ? V^hy is there such 
temptation held out to crime when crime is so 
inexorably punished? Let the philanthropist 
ponder over t^ese wide-spread evils, whose 
baneful and disastrous results meet th^ eye 
wherever we turn. 

I am not the man to lift the untutored savage 
above the cultivated races of mankind ; but I 
say that a happier lot is awarded to the unmo- 


lested, uncivilised aborigines of any country 
than it is, alas! the fate of millions of our 
fellow-countrymen to experience, and that the 
civilization of Japan affords a heaven of con- 
tentment as compared with our own. Yet we 
boast of our intelligence and superiority among 
men. Go, reader, and look at the ill-supported 
night-refuge, and its beds of deal boards, in 
Field Lane, and the wretched pens in which 
women are herded in the casual ward at Is- 
lington, and the sheds where they are thrust 
away at Lambeth, and wait a little while till 
these muddy receptacles are filled, and then 
watch the hundreds of ghastly, ill-clothed crea- 
tures who are turned shivering away, with- 
out a refuge where to lay their heads, or a 
crumb to allay the pangs of a gnawing hunger. 
Ah, wealth and fashion ! ye may revel away 
your lives in luxurious plenty, but think of your 
wretched fellow-men, and the helpless castaway 
women who populate in thousands your magni- 
ficent metropolis, your country. Why send your 
money to convert the heathen, when you have a 
community at home more vicious and depraved, 
and destitute, both morally and physically, than 


are those for whom you subscribe, and who would 
be better without your aid ? Our civilization has 
been pronounced a mistake^ but such is not the 
case ; it is the system of that civilization which 
is incomplete and faulty, and the day will soon 
come when the defects of the Christian year of 
eighteen hundred and fifty-nine will be remedied 
by the more liberal and just policy of an ad- 
vancing people. 

Fashion does not like to have these things 
preached to it, but fashion is as much dust as 
famine, and the only difference in appearance 
between the two is very often constituted by a 
few yards of crinoline or a pair of peg-top trou- 
sers. Humanity is, more or less, in all classes 
and every stage, heir to the same feelings, open 
to the same wants, and liable to the same vicis- 
situdes, and a man with superior means at his 
command, who has so little feeling for his less 
fortunate fellow-man, that he would allow him 
to starve while within reach, is a creature too 
ignoble to aspire to immortality. I speak na- 
tionally and individually ; it is individuals that 
constitute the nation, therefore it behoves every 
one of us to use his best endeavours towards 


the amelioration of those evils which so widdy 
and palpably beset our social system, and the 
organization of such institutions of a compre- 
hensive character as may provide work for the 
willing, and bread and a habitation for the hun- 
gry and houseless. Why boast of our civiliza- 
tibn and religion till this is done? Such a 
boast is either a delusion or a mockery, « at once 
anomalous and contradictory. I am discursive, 
but it is on behalf of my fellow- men, and I trust 
that I have not usurped the privilege in vain. 

After breakfast, on this my third morning at 
Nagasaki, I went ashore in company with the 
senior surgeon, the same who climbed the hiUs 
and mountains of Lew-Kew, and ascended the 
same stone steps leading to the town. We had 
determined upon an inspection of Dezaim, other- 
wise Desima, signifying the Fore Islands, i. e. 
the one fronting the city, or Desimamatz, the 
Fore Island street, it being considered one of the 
streets of Nagasaki. At the end of the stone 
bridge connecting the two places, stood a guard- 
house, where sentinels are always on duty. The 
islet itself has been raised from the rocky and sandy 
bottom, which at low water is left high and dry ; 


in shape it is an oblong square, the two larger 
sides being segments of a circle ; in aspect, there- 
fore, it resembles a fan without a handle, hence 
my remark expressed at first sight to that effect. 
On the north or seaward side were two 
strong gates, opening for the purpose of 
lading or unlading the Dutch vessels. The 
island was surrounded with a high paling, 
surmounted by spikes like a chevaux defrise. 
Thirteen posts were fixed, in the form of a half 
circle, in front of it, inside of which none but 
Dutch craft were allowed to pass. A shady 
footpath wound round the islet immediately 
within the paling, and a wide street, forming the 
centre of traffic, ran straight across it. The 
houses were of two stories, the upper being 
used for residential purposes, and the lower for 
the stowage of goods. At the back of the street, 
on the southern side, stood a large goods store, 
and two large fire-proof depositories built by the 
Dutch Company, also a restaurant, and a house 
for the deputies of the governors of Nagasaki, 
who have the superintendence of the trade, also 
one for the use of the interpreters during the 
time of the sale of merchandize, also a bath and 

£ 3 


washhouse, and public gardens, and a house or 
court appropriated to the ottona, or chief officer 
of the street. 

In the produce portion of the gardens alluded 
to, we saw growing the common red beet, and 
the carrot, lettuce, succory, endive, fennel, anise, 
dill, parsley, and asparagus, as also leeks, onions, 
yams, turnips, and radishes. The crops were 
at once abundant, healthy, and inviting, and 
winding footpaths, and beds of fragrant flowers, 
rich in blossom and luxuriant in form, enhanced 
the beauty of the picture. 

We only remained about a quarter of an hour 
on the islet, during which time I exchanged a 
few words with a few Dutchmen, and we were 
both well stared at by the native officials. The 
doctor was bent upon botanising, he did not 
care about carrots or turnips however, he knew 
enough of them already ; so we retraced our way 
across the bridge and made the best progress 
we could through the town towards the open 
country beyond, and some miles to the west- 
ward, where the hills were studded with shrines 
and temples, and the foliage on the mountains 
was sparkUng in the sunshine. 


There we found long ranges of sloping ground 
at the foot of the mountains planted with the 
sweet potato ; further on, several kinds of yams 
were growing wild. Buck-wheat, beans ( Vida 
fdba and Phascolus), and peas (Pisum Sativum)^ 
were also cultivated. Tobacco and capsicum, in 
one instance, presented a green and flourishing 
patch. Hemp and the aromatic acorns, the 
gingery Amommm Mioga, the Mentha piperita^ 
and the Alcea rosea^ grew up beside the bright 
flowers of the Malva Mauritiana. Then there 
was the Celastius alatruSy a branch of which, 
if left at the house of a young lady, has, in 
Japanese estimation, the power of making her 
fall in love with the gentleman gatherer. Then 
came the juniper tree, the bamboo and the box ; 
even the familar ivy, as we proceeded higher, 
trailed along our path, in company with the 
Smilax China ; wild 6gs, with a plum-like fruit, 
were there, and the pepper bush {Figara pepe- 
rita) grew side by side with the pologonum.. 

I also observed a species of madder {Rubia 
cordato)j and two species of nettles, the bark 
of which furnishes a kind of cordage, and the 
seeds an oil used in cookery. The yellow 



flowers of the colewort {Brasaica Orientalis), 
which is largely cultivated for the oil which its 
seeds afford, vied with those of the anise^tree, 
which latter are much used in religious oere- 

Camphor and varnish trees were sprinkled 
here and there, and the polished evergreen 
leaves of the Cammelia sasan^a contrasted with 
the emery foliage of the Melea azedarach. 

Of the larger trees there was the Thuja dote' 
brata^ tall, straight, and with leaves of a silver 
whiteness on their under side. We counted 
six peculiar species of maplQ, and several of 
oak. Cedars {Cupressus Japonica) flourished 
in great perfection. 

The common barberry was there, loaded with 
blossom, as also the vaccinia and the wild pear- 
tree, with the roughest of leaves. Then came the 
Oryris Japonica^ bearing its flowers at the 
middle of its leaves ; the vibuma, with double 
as well as single flowers ; two species of spirea, 
the Citrus TVipoliata and the Gardenia Flo- 
riolay the seed vessels of which are used in the 
manufacture of yellow dye, and lastly, there was 
the dragon lily {Arum Bracontium)^ of which 


we brought back with us a beautiful specimen. 
It was near sunset before we thought about 
returning to the ship, but we had wandered so 
far into the country, and found ourselves in such 
rich pasture, that we made the best use of the 
opportunities before us, and, as the moon was 
then full, we did not anticipate the prospect of 
losing ourselves, but worked on steadily during the 
whole day, without the slightest molestation or 
interruption, meanwhile having partaken with 
much gusto of the sandwiches and brandy which 
we had provided ourselves with before starting. 

The declining sun was shedding floods of 
beaming light over the riant landscape as we 
threaded our way — followed by the two boys 
we had brought with us to carry specimens— 
across the prospect of hill and valley towards 
the outstretched bay of Nagasaki, that, as viewed 
from a commanding eminence over which we 
were passing, reposed like a golden shadow far 
in the distance, traversed by. here and there a 
sail, and dotted with islets of perennial green, 
and overlooked by the rugged tops of mountains 
whose cultivated sides were dyed with the glo- 
rious tints of sunset. By the time we reached 


the pier steps, the pall of night overhung the! 
scene, the sky was a lustrous mist, and the 
moon with placid beams once more had decked 
the earth. 

" How beautiful is night ! '* was my soliloquy. 

The boat was in waiting for us, so quickly, 
and with measured stroke, the feathered oars 
were bearing us away. Melodious sounds wor- 
thy of Italian nights floated softly from illumi- 
nated boats slowly gliding over the silvered tide. 
The picture resembled a scenic representation of 
fairy land. 

Nagasaki was gay with lights; the feasting 
was not yet over. I thought of Noskotoska, 
and regretted that I had not spent my day in 
observing the city and the people, instead of 
leaves and flowers. 

" The proper study of mankind is man.*' 
Why then had I forsaken him for v^etables ? 
A bump against the frigate's side disturbed my 
soliloquy, and again I ascended the gangway 



'* GooD-morrow," said I in English, French, and 
Dutch, so that Noskotoska might fully appre- 
ciate the force of my well-meant greeting, for 
the Japanese never wish each other good day, it 
being taken for granted that such wish is uni- 
versal among men ; their compliments are all of 
a general kind, and the sentences that apply to 
those of the morning also apply to those of the 
evening ; the health is never ^enquired after, but 
allusion is made to bodily prosperity in the 
compliments which equals exchange when on 
familiar terms. This salutation was made on 
the deck of the frigate alongside of which Nos- 



kotoska had just arrived in his gaily-decorated 
goDdolaJike barge. 

He Jiad come on board to see me. Would I 
sail round the bay with him, and then accom- 
pany him to his house ? Of course I would. 
I should feel honoured, however, if he would 
step into the cabin and take a glass of wine — 
the captain would be happy to see him. 

He acceded, so, with all possible politeness, 
I escorted him thither. The introduction was 
soon gone through, and a bottle of champagne 
imbibed, when we took our way together into 
the barge through a lane of kneeling figures. 
We seated ourselves on soft cushions beneath a 
gilded canopy at the stern of the boat ; the 
graceful bamboo sail was then spread, and away 
we glided over the calm blue waters towards the 
miniature archipelago of the outer bay. 

After a quarter of an hour's sail, we turned 
back, and steered direct for the Nagasaki land- 
ing-place. We ascended the steps, and were 
once more in the streets of the city. 

" Yours is a beautiful clime to dwell in," 
said 1. 

"You do honour to Nipon," answered my 

^^PV'^W^V'iVOTW^'W ■«• 1  I I  1^ 


companion. " You cheer the spirit of him to 
whom you speak. But Nipon is not fairer than 
the great country from which you, my noble 
friend, first journeyed. Your island is smaU, 
but your deeds are great. How comes so much 
power and -feme from so isolated a land ?*' 

"Ah/' said I, ''England has planted her 
children far and wide over the countries of the 
earth, and the Anglo-Saxon tongue is spoken 
from pole to pole. Her banner floats over many 
remote lands, and her flag of liberty is borne 
over every sea. It is the enterprise and intel- 
ligence of her people that Jias lifted her so high 
in the scale of nations ; it is that, with the free- 
dom of her institutions, that still sustains her 
on the pinnacle of a virtuous power." 

" You are favoured of the gods," said he, " to 
have had your origin in so good and renowned 
a land — I fed honoured and distinguished in 
the presence of one belonging to it." 

I complimented him in equally flattering terms. 

Of course I said nothing about Field Lane 
and the social system to Noskotoska. The 
same treatment does not answer for every 
patient, and I always make a point wherever I 


am, of taking the weaker^ or rather the least 
represented side. It is very candid on my part 
to make such a confession, but the fact is, when 
I am in New York I defend everything EngUsb 
with the most profound respect for my country, 
and not only that, but I have when there, so far 
criticised things American, as to have been 
rewarded with the titles, ** Grumbler" and 
" Stickler.'* 

I admit that this is not the way to make 
myself popular with the half-dozen whom I may 
have the pleasure of addressing, but I do thus 
on the principle that I have a great antipathy to 
backbiting, and being prejudiced on neither side, 
I have a genuine love of fair play. Broadway 
may be as good as Pall Mall, and tnce versa. 
We all have our defects. Why then should 
the one usurp superiority over the other ? 
When Broadway is attacked in Pall MaU, and 
Pall Mall is attacked in Broadway, I inva- 
riably side with the defendant in each case, 
anomalous though it be.— I am becoming con- 
versational, let me fan myself again by the side 
of Noskotoska. 

We threaded our way through a line of 


gates, and after a walk of about fifteen minutes, 
were again passing through the lovely little 
avenue of fragrant orange trees mto the porch, 
terminating in the drop-scene*looking wall be- 
fore alluded to. The servant in gossamer was 
in his appointed place, looking as much of a 
saffron hue as before. He bowed his head low 
as we passed him, and took our way into the 
same saloon of audience. 

It now presented quite another aspect to that 
described on my former visits, and this was 
owing to the sliding screens having been spread 
out ; the room was now divided into three com- 
partments reaching half way to the roof, and 
constituting the snuggest of nooks as well as 
affording the gayest of pictures to look upon, for 
they, the slides, were highly varnished and gilded, 
and covered with flowers and representations of 
the popular games, and sacred birds and animals 
of the empire, and were so scented, that a delicate 
aroma was being constantly diffused from them 
throughout the room. 

Two trays, containing pipes and tobacco, and 
two diminutive silver braziers, holding burning, 
ftimeless charcoal, were quickly brought in by a 


male attendant I had not hitherto seen, but 
who, as regards costume, was an exact copy of 
his colleague in the lobby, and just as yellow. 
He retired, moving backwards, with his hands 
resting on his thighs, after the orthodox custom 
of the country, and in a few minutes afterwards 
returning with two other trays bearing each a 
fine lacquer cup, and a third tray, on which 
was the kettle of silver bronze, con- 
taining tea, he laid them down on the small 
light stools or tables which we had found already 
in the compartment at the time of our entrance, 
and then backed out again, as on the former 
occasion . 

" Yes," said my host, resuming the conversa- 
tion, " England is a mighty country — yours is a 
noble realm. I should like to journey thither, 
but I despair of ever gaining permission to do 
so. Our empire is an isolated one. You tell 
me of ambassadors being sent from France and 
Spain, and America; and of these, from all 
parts of the earth, meeting together in London ; 
but those nations want something from you, 
and you from them; but in Nipon we have 
no such wants. Our country produces all that 


is needful for us to consume. It troubles my 
soul to learn whether our empire would be 
better for association, more intimate than now, 
with the remote lands of earth. Your drinks 
and food might be injurious rather than be- 
neficial to us ; and your religion and much beside 
might find its way with the tide of commerce 
into our cities, and cause dissension among our 
people. Calamity and bloodshed, even to an 
overthrow of our reigning powers, might succeed, 
and Nipon might decline like the sun before the 
moon, and be shaken by the earthquakes of 

" You speak sadly — gloomily — perhaps truly, 
most noble Noskotoska, but England is righteous 
among nations, and would strive to maintain the 
cause of equity, and conduce to the good of 
your empire ; for from her civilisation you might 
borrow new lights wherewith to adorn your own. 
Nipon is an empire that commands the respect 
of all nations. You are a great people, suf- 
ficiently powerful in your own might and wisdom 
to control the actions of the foreigners visiting 
your shores, and with which you might traffic. 
You would have command over their imports, 


80 that the drinks and the food of which you 
speak could be prohibited from entering the 
empire ; and, by the exercise of that discrimina- 
tive intelligence with which, as a people, you 
are so higlily endowed, those things that you 
esteemed evil might be rejected, so that good 
would alone accrue to you from the intercourse. 
You would thus establish a name among the 
nations of the earth ; and be conferring, by the 
tribute of your intelligence and manufactures, a 
bene6t upon your fellow-men in other dimes. 
The Dutch have not contaminated you — why 
should any other civilised nation ?" 

Thus spoke I to the pondering Noskotoska. 
There was no doubt about his understanding 
me ; for, when he failed in doing so in English, 
I invoked the liberal aid of both Japanese and 
Dutch, the dictionary of those languages being 
at hand, in the event of any difBculty arising. 

We had been for more than half-an-hour thus 
conversing, when the beautiful Sondoree — in other 
words, Mrs. Noskotoska — made her appearance. 

She had just entered the house in company with 
a lady friend, who was then in another apartment. 

Involuntarily I rose, bowed, and extended 


my hand, the latter so suggestively, that 
Mrs. Noskotoska actually took hold of it, or 
rather in the uncertain endeavour to do so, 
approached it so ck>sely, that I tenderly took 
hold of hers. I was delighted to see her. I 
hoped, with all the fervour of my nature, that 
the noble boys, her children, were doing well, 
and that she herself was doing likewise. I 
wished her the highest felicity ever awarded to 
mortal on earth, a highly orthodox Japanese 
compliment, and begged her acceptance of the 
few trinkets which I had provided myself with 
before leaving the ship, and which I then handed 
to her, encased in a small box which had been 
bought at Tunbridge Wells for sixpence. They 
consisted of a ring, a pencil-case, and a few 
charms, which I had bought from an English- 
man at Hong Kong, for the purpose of giving 
away to the Japanese ladies. She was much 
pleased with- them, and thanked me warmly ; but 
with respect to the ring, she thought it em- 
blematic of bondage, of fetters, and such Uke. I 
placed it on her second finger, and assured her 
that the ladies of England and America had 
no such scruple against wearing them, and that 



such was 8 sign of rank and wealth rather than 
otherwise, although when the display of those or 
any other kind of jewellery was large and con- 
spicuous, the taste was justly esteemed vulgar. 
Her hair to-day was no longer of such a length 
as to remind me of a bell-rope ; it was wound 
into a compact coil at the back of the head near 
the crown, after the common style of wearing 
it ; there it was fastened by two pins chastely 
carved, the one of tortoisesbell, the other of 
gold. Her appearance was so fair and beam- 
ing, that she would have awoke the admiration 
of many an unsmitten exquisite satiated with 
gazing on the beauty of a London season. 
Ladies, she was ^'a dear sweet creature,'' as 
guileless, as innocent, and as virtuous as she 
was lovely. She withdrew. 

My host expressed his inclination for a bath. 
Would I like to enjoy a similar luxury ? if so, my 
company in the water would afford him pleasure. 
Tapping the brazier before him with his fan, he 
summoned the attendant from the passage, to 
whom he communicated his desire. The yellow 
gossamer retired, bending as usual. My host 
followed immediately afterwards, and I with him, 


across the apartment, through the open win* 
dows and garden to the bath-house, at one side 
of the entrance to which knelt the gentleman of 
the bath, a third male servant. He inclined 
his forehead to the ground as we passed him, 
and then, still kneeling, awaited the commands 
of his master. 

There were, two tanks or baths in the cham- 
ber, made of white marble, and both supplied 
with warm water. In a recess the buckets for 
holding cold water were suspended from a 
copper rail running across it. My host was 
quickly divested of his garments; I followed 
hit example, and very soon we were dabbling 
and plunging about in five feet of water. , I was 
in the act of emerging again from the bath, 
when the fair Sondoree — yes, reader, Mrs. Nos- 
kotoska made her appearance, and — oh, clouds 
and sunshine — with her lady friend by her side. 
There was no mistake about it, they had seen 
us go into the bath-house. They did not blush 
or turn back, — no, that was not to be expected 
from Japanese ladies. What was the best thing 
to be done ? The lovely creatures were asking 
me how I liked the bath. I was almost dis- 




posed to be vulgar and say, " None the better 
for seeing you/' but its rudeness shocked my 
delicacy as much as did the presence of my 
hosfs wife and her virgin friend, for the teeth 
of the latter were white as polished ivory. So 
much the worse for me, I thought. Neverthe- 
less, I mustered that quiet courage so necessary 
in positions of the kind, and composed myself. 
Why should I trouble myself about it, thought 
I, if they did not? They were the intniders 
not I. What delightiiil consolation. Just then 
Noskotoska stepped out of his bath, and stand- 
ing on a grating in the middle of the floor, 
ordered a couple of buckets of cold water to be 
thrown over him by the attendant. The water, 
through which a constant current had been 
maintained, was now allowed to run oflF, — it was 
but the work of a moment. Just then the 
thought struck me that the ladies, who were 
conversing together in one corner of the room, 
had come to immerse themselves, and that the 
longer I remained where I was, the longer one of 
them would have to wait. They would rather see 
me out of the bath than in it, I began to think, so 
out I stepped, in a manner as sprightly as even 


that of Noskotoska. I narrowly escaped having 
two buckets of cold water dashed over me as I 
passed the attendant and proceeded to the dry^ 
ing ground) a small but open division at the 
upper extremity of the room. By this time the 
water from both tanks had been emptied, and 
they were being filled again with a fresh supply 
from the pipes leading into them^and, to my addi- 
tional dismay, the ladies commenced undressing. 
They were divested of their apparel almost as 
quickly as was Noskotoska, their entire habili- 
ments descending at a drop, on the sash» et cetera, 
being unbound. After that, they tripped lightly 
inlo the respective baths. I was dressed nearly 
as soon as my host, and we both left the apart- 
ment together, the ladies chatting to him as 
he went, and appearing to be in the enjoyment 
of the most perfect happiness. 

Passing through the garden, we entered the 
same compartment of the saloon of audience, 
and were at once served with small glasses of 
old mellow saki, and a second edition of to- 
bacco and burning charcoal. '' You would like 
to see my library ?" said Noskotoska, interro- 
gatively. I expressed my desire affirmatively, 

F 2 


upon which he rose and led the way past the 
lobby attendant and through the passage to the 
left, passing the hall and drop-scene, into a room 
somewhat larger than the saloon of audience, 
and fitted up with rows of books resting on 
silver gratings of unique device on three sides 
of the room Thousands of volumes were here 
presented to me at a glance. Three stands, 
loaded with native drawings, maps, charts, and 
designs of various works of art, occupied posi- 
tions in the centre of the room. With the 
exception of about a dozen Dutch, Chinese, 
German, and French works relating to Japaii, 
and about half as many in the English lan- 
guage, exclusive of a dictionary of the Chinese 
and Japanese languages, a vocabulary of the 
English and Japanese, by Medhurst, and the 
two others already named, each compiled and 
published at Nagasaki, all these books were 
native. The greater part of their number con- 
sisted of romances and legendary tales; then 
came local histories and histories of the various 
emperors; then works on natural history, bo- 
tany, and numerous treatises on the various 
sciences ; then poems and plays, and a long cata- 

* • 

w w ^ 


i - ^ - '.. .' 


logue which I am unable to classify. AH these 
works were limited in their subjects and inci-* 
dents to the inner life of the empire itself, as, 
indeed) might be expected from so compara- 
tively isolated a people. The poetry and fiction, 
my host informed me, was the most popular 
description of literature ; the latter afforded in- 
struction combined with amusement, while as 
to the poetry, it elevated human thought and 
prompted noble actions ; in its influence it never 
failed to purify and to exalt ; it lifted man above 
the petty troubles attendant on his mortal career ; 
it imbued his soul with holiness, and made wider 
the gulf between man and beast; it afforded 
solace and refreshment to the wearied traveller 
along the crowded highway of life ; it was a 
balm in the midst of desolation, and embalmed 
thoughts and ideas which, like stars in the firma- 
ment, burned with a quenchless light. 

Alas ! for those toilers who earn their bread 
by an incessant mechanical toil, which allows 
them no opportunity for gaining intellectual 
nourishment, or whose tastes are so much of the 
earth-earthy, that they plod wearily through the 
long vista of their journey to corruption without 


tasting of the elixir which it is the lot of the 
man of poetry to partake. Poetry of feeling, in 
its influence, is as a perpetual ray of light cheer- 
ing and making glad the heart. It is the sun- 
beam of happiness, the sublime source of the 
most refined pleasure and happiness which it is 
the lot of man ever to feel. Poetry itself is the 
loftiest, the nearest divine creation of his genius — 
his intelligence. Such was Noskotoska's opinion^ 
such is mine. 

The works in the English language com- 
prised a copy of Webster's Dictionary, — 
the second I had met with in Japan, — two 
cheap American reprints of popular English 
authors,^ a cookery book published at Cincin- 
nati, Golownin's Narrative, and a religious tract 
emating from the New York Methodists, and 
addressed to the heathen. 

This was a literary hotch-potch which afforded 
me much material for comment. But I failed 
to distil much in the way of opinion from their 
possessor, save as to the dictionary, which to 
him was the most valuable of books. He in- 

* Bulwer's *^The Caxtons;" Reade's "Peg Wof- 



formed me that he was learning the dictionary, 
in order that he might be enabled to learn the 
other books afterwards. I congratulated him on 
his success so far, and wished him a happy con- 
summation of his laudable task. I promised to 
add to bis list of English authors before leaving 
the port, upon which he manifested much plea- 
sure, and thanked me exceedingly. 

I have before described Japanese books, and 
this collection of Noskotoska's offered no ex- 
ception to the rule ; the covers being all limp, 
and embellished with various characters and 
scenes, both plain black, and coloured, Uie binding 
being either of silk velvet or paper ; and the 
common size a little smaller than our quarto, but 
thin, and light of weight. 

We were still in the library, when the ladies, 
fresh from the batb, made their appearance 
before ns. There was no blushing on either 
side. I knew the custom of the country ; and, 
so long as the ladies liked it, I had no cause for 
complaint. I have a happy facility for accom- 
modating myself to time and place, and the 
society into which chance or fortune may lead 
me. I conform voluntarOy to the proverb which 


makes allusion to Rome and the Romans. Thus, 
for instance, I smoked, and drank tea, and 
spoke with reverence of Father Buddha ; none 
of which would have been practised by me, had 
not the habits of the Japanese suggested such. 
The act of taking a warm bath in the presence 
of witnesses, was another new feature in the order 
of things. But it was the custom of the country. 
What black is to us, white is to the Japanese, 
in more matters than mourning garments. 

While we jwere standing together, one of the 
male attendants presented himself at the ' open 
doorway, and, kneeling, uttered a few words in 
a low tone, and then retired. It was an intima- 
tion that the mid-day repast was prepared, and 
in readiness. Noskotoska led the way, the ladies 
followed him, and I followed the ladies. Such 
was the order of procession. We ascended a 
flight of steps, beautifully lacquered, into a third 
room, richly gilded and bedizened with ornament, 
overlooking the avenue leading to the pordi, 
and affording a glimpse of the street, and of 
the mountains beyond. Here were four small 
lacquered tables, on each of which lay the ac- 
customed ivory chopstick, the small porcelain 


cup for tea, and the larger one of lacquer-work 
for saki, the small glass cruet of soy, the porce- 
lain spoon, and the silver fork. 

The tahles were arranged round the room, 
and two servants in gossamer showed the virgin 
lady and myself, as guests, to our appointed 
seats and tables. The former were without 
backs, but provided with three legs of ebony- 
wood, and topped with figured velvet. Both 
tables and stools were lower than I could have 
desired ; and which had the effect of inducing 
me to extend my legs a more than usual distance 
across the room, nature having elevated me 
" pretty considerable" in the world — that is to 
say, some six feet or more above the standing 

Our first course was a cup of saki ; our second 
a small saucer-like plate of soup, and, of course, 
fish and rice soup ; our third was the same, but 
made from a different variety»of fish, and thicker 
than the first; the fourth was a fragment of 
lobster each ; the fifth a well-flavoured pottage 
of fine herbs and rice ; the sixth, a second sup- 
ply of saki and pieces of wheaten cake; the 
seventh, one small, mucilaginous shell-fish each, 



which was as su^estire of a snail as Mrs. Nos- 
kotoska's original mode of dressing ha* hair had 
been of a bell-rope, but which proved itself very 
ddicious ; the eighth and final course consisted 
of tea aud confectionery, the last mentioned 
being the choicest I had ever eaten in any part 
of the world. The meal was, on the whole, 
l^ht, as the reader may easily suppose. How- 
ever, there was one cause for satisfactioQ ; it 
was remarkably easy of digestion — so much so, 
that I felt disposed for a biscuit an hour after 
the last course was served; and I am by no 
means a cormorant. 

Afta- the collation was oyer we descended into 

the saloon of audience, and so on to the verandah, 

upon which its windows opened, and where we 

took our seats On the flimsiest looking of lacquered 

benches, and surveyed the beauties of the garden 

prospect before us. We bad not been there above 

ten minutes, when I saw the two curses before 

spoken of, bearing the two cbOdren of Nosko- 

ka. threading their way down a side walk 

DQ the house towards the bathing saloon. The 

vement was similarly observed by the o,tbers. 

about ten minutes more, during which time 


we men had been served with tea and pipes 
and the ladies with tea only, my host rose, say- 
ing, •' Come and look at my wife's offspring, the 
sons upon whom I rely for the perpetuation of 
my memory and the fame of my good deeds." I 
politely assented but had some fears that we should 
find them, as well as their nurses in a condition 
not the most presentable, according to European 
ideas. *' In puris naturalibuSy^' said I, with an 
air and look rather jocular than anything else. 

Noskatoska's response was to the effect that 
such was no obstacle, — of no consequence what- 
ever. They were all virtuous in Nipon. 

So we set off, men and women, in the same 
order of procession as that adopted in moving 
from the library to the dining-room, winding our 
way through groves and flowers, and across hills 
and valleys, the varied scenery of the cultivated 
grounds, till we reached the bathing saloon. It 
was built with a conical roof, and spreading eaves 
of figured tiles, covering a compact matting of 
bamboo. On the conical summit of the roof, 
the figure of a crane cast in silver was grace- 
fully perched. We entered, as 1 had anticipated, 
just in time to find the women and the childroi 


occupying the two marble receptacles before 
mentioned. Each had one of the boys in her 
armS| whose head only was kept above water. 
However, they all appeared to be enjoying the 
immersion very much, judging by the giggling 
of the children, and the smiling laughter of their 
life preservers, for such they might reasonably 
be called, when the depth of the water was taken 
into consideration. The Japanese stood watch- 
ing and admiring the pranks of the children, the 
adies not omitting to talk to them. The nurses, 
I found, were no more bashful than was their 
mistress, or were the rest of the ladies of the 
empire. But no harm was thought of it. no harm 
ever came of it, and I thought with Noskotoska 
that in Japan it was a matter of no consequence, 
perfectly orthodox, &c., &c., as well as a sign of 
that innocence, that virtue, which is an universal 
characteristic of the women of that eastern realm. 
Here Noskotoska informed me for the 
first time, that his children — the two in&nt 
strugglers in the water — were already affianced 
to two even younger than themselves. He 
looked forward to their marriage with delight, 
and informed me that it was the custom to a 

^gP^ip^^PP^^g^^B^PJ^^^^P^^PHHIPPP^^^PHP^^V^^^^^ WV^pp. ^m l«i»m^iHlH^ 

VP^>^^V*'v^*' ' 


great extent among the higher and middle 
dasses throughout the empire, for parents to 
affiance their children in infancy. He described 
the marriage ceremony. 

On the appointed day of the wedding, the bride, 
arrayed in white, not as the garb of festivity, as 
the reader is aware, but of mourning, she being 
henceforth esteemed as dead to her parents, is 
carried in a norimon by eight of her father's chief 
servants or friends to the house of the bridegroom. 
Her mother and herfather follow in other such con- 
veyances. The norimon is met within the passage 
by the latter, when the bride extends to him her 
marmoriy a silk bag containing an image, and sup- 
posed to act as a sort of amulet, which he then 
hands to his nearest attendant, who conveys it 
into the room prepared for the ceremony, and 
there suspends it from a staff placed for that 

The bride then descends from her seat in the 
palanquin, and is led to the door of the grand- 
apartment by the bridegroom, who then sur- 
renders her to one of her waiting. women, who 
leads her to a throne erected in the centre of 
the room, where^ being seated, two female at- 


tendants, t. e. bridesmaids, take their places io a 
similar posture oa each side of her. The 
bridegroom is then escorted from his own apart- 
ment, and ushered into her presence, followed 
by the mediator, a married friend appointed by 
the former, and his wife. No other persons are 
allowed to be present, the parents of the bride 
remaining in an adjoining room. The form of 
ceremony consists in drinking said after a pre- 
scribed manner. The liquor is poured out by 
the two young girls from two jugs, to each of 
which is attached a paper figure of a butterfly, 
supposed to be male and female, and of the 
kind commonly to be seen flying in pairs ; this 
is intended to signify that husband and wife 
ought always to be together. The drinking 
vessels are fine lacquer cups, placed on a tray 
one within the other. The bride takes the up- 
permost, and holds it with both hands, while 
some saki is poured into it from the vase repre- 
sented by the male butterfly ; she then sips from 
it three several times, after which, she hands it 
to the intended husband, who also drinks from 
it three times in the same manner. He then 
places the cup under the others, hands the se- 


eond to the virgins, to be filled, and after drink- 
ing out of it three times, also passes it to the 
bride. She then sips out of it three times, puts 
it under the first one, and taking up the third 
cup, hands it to be filled likewise ; when this is 
done, she sips again three times, and passes it 
to the groom, who repeats the same ceremony, 
after which he places the cup under the other 
two, and when this is done, the marriage cere- 
mony is completed. 

A signal is then sounded by the mediator, 
upon which the bride's parents are ushered into 
the presence of the wedded pair, and after them 
follow the male relatives of the bridegroom. 
Saki and confectionery are then handed round 
by the two young virgins to the members of 
both families, who, by thus partaking, extend, 
as it were, to each other the alliance already 
contracted between the principal actors on this 

After this, the delivery of presents from the 

' bride to her husband, as also to his relatives and 

servants, takes place. A list of these, together 

with a few of the least bulky articles, is then 

brought into the room, and placed before the 

••nw"*^ ■■'"'' •" — ' ' " '■  " 7 '^^ ^ ^ ^flMF'-- 



mediator, who reads the first aloud to those pre- 
sent. The bridegroom then presents his con- 
sort with two crape robes of the finest make, 
one with a red, the other with a black ground , 
both being embroidered with silk flowers, and 
designs m gold and silver. 

Upon this the bride retires, fijUowed by the 
virgins, and very soon re-appears arrayed in 
these robes, but only remains a few moments 
previous to being escorted by the mediator to 
another apartment, where she remains till her 
parents are ready to take their departure, when 
she joins her husband at the porch, and bids 
them an affectionate adieu. 

As the bride does not leave her father's house 
till two hours after mid-day, it is usually past 
sunset before the latter take their leave. Later 
in the evening, the bridegroom proceeds with his 
parents, if they be living, — which is generally the 
case, the marriages taking place when the sons 
are about seventeen, and the girls fifteen — as 
also the mediator, when the drinking of saki and 
feasting is again gone through, the bride mean- 
while remaining at the house of her husband, 
in company with her maids. On this oc- 



casioD, the father-in-law presents him with a 
sabre, and presents are usually made by the 
husband to his bride's relations. The fes- 
tivities over, the son-in-law, accompanied by hi 
parents, take their leave, and returning home, 
are met at the porch by the bride herself. Illu* 
minations sometimes accompany these proceed- 

The beds of the household are then prepared, 
and the bride is led by her maid to the nuptial 
couch, after which the groom is introduced. 
The bridal chamber is, in all cases, amply fur* 
nished with the numerous choice articles of the 
Japanese toilet, including a new wardrobe ; the 
latter arranged on racks about the room. 

The bride, amongst the higher classes, is 
usually portioned with twelve silk robes, each of 
which is placed on a distinct rack. These robes 
or dresses are of various colours, and beautifully 
embroidered, and are worn in prescribed and 
successive order over a space of as many months. 
The one allotted for wear during the first month 
after marriage, is a crape of a blue colour, em« 
broidered with fir trees or bamboos; for the 
second month there is a sea green, gauzy silk 


robe, embroidered with cherry flowers, and some* 
tiling very like buttercups ; for the third month, 
the robe is of a light {Hnk, a mixture of crape 
and silk, decked with willows and cherry-trees ; 
and for the fourth month, a crape robe of a 
pearl colour, embroidered with a crown and an 
ardiipelago. Number five is a silk robe of 
£unt yellow, decked with waves and blades of 
sword grass ; number six, ditto of bright orange, 
with melons, and a foaming torrent ; number 
seven, a white crape robe with kUi flowers, 
white and purple; nmxiber eight, o red crape 
robe, sprinkled with sloe leaves ; number nine, 
a violet robe of silk, embroidered with flowers of 
the Chrysanthemum indiounit the latter very 
splendid. For the tenth month, the robe is of 
silk, and an olive colour, with representations of 
a public highway, and ears of gathered nee ; for 
the eleventh month, a Uack one of silk, embroi* 
dered with the snow-capped summit of a moun- 
tain, and icicles ; and for the last, and twelfth, a 
purple robe of velvet, with emblems of snow. 

On the morning after the marriage, the young 
couple take a warm bath, and afterwards break* 
fast together. Soon after this, numerous pre- 


sents usually arrive, and the bride receives visits 
of ceremony. After the expiration of three days, 
the bride pays a visit to her parents, preceded 
by a present from her husband, and one corre- 
sponding to M^hich is sent back when the bride 

On the day following, the bride, accompanied 
by her mother-in-law, or some aged female 
relative, makes a round of call^^iipon all who 
have sent her presents — there is nothing done 
without presents in Japan, however trifling they 
may be — thanks them and offers a suitable 
return, a supply for this purpose having been 
provided for her by her own relatives. 

Seven days after the wedding, the bride and her 
husband as also several of his intimate friends are 
invited by the parents of the former to a grand 
entertainment. A few days ulterior to this, the 
bridegroom invites the relatives of his wife to a 
similar entertainment, and when this is over, the 
wedding formula is complete, and things resume 
their wonted order, the young couple either re- 
maining in the house of the bridegroom's father, 
or taking one to themselves, the latter being 
the more common proceeding of the two. 


Noskotoska was speaking, with his large black 
eyes, bright and eloquent, fixed full upon me» 
as we stood together at the entrance to the bath 
house ; the women and the children were still 
plashing about in the water, and the two ladies 
were within the saloon, talking to them. 

" You have a beautiful garden," said I, 
changing the subject of our conversation from 
matrimony to flowers. 

" Yes," said he, " it is fair to the eye, and 
pleasing to the mind. Yonder is the beautiful 
tazolee. My wife derives her name from 
that sweet blossom, but she is also beau- 
tiful. Tazolee," said he, turning to his wife, 
" come hither, fair flower, and let us wander 
through the shady groves and avenues, and in- 
hale the perfume which they exhale, for England 
loveth such emblems of purity, and fair to [his 
gaze is the blossom of tazolee. Come," said he, 
turning to me, for the ladies were already by 
his side, and leaving behind us the nurses who 
were in the act of flinging cold water over each 
other, we threaded our way through the shrub* 
bery and the sunlight, tiU we reached an avenue 
of cypress and willow, in whose delicious shade 


we seated ourselves on a bed of mossy turf, soft 
and dry as a Brussels carpet, and looked around. 

All the beauties of the garden seemed to be 
unfolded before us at a glance ; birds were sing, 
ing, perched upon the branches ; a Niagara in 
miniature was leaping sportively over blocks of 
granite resembling mighty crags, and had its em- 
bouchure in a lake alive with gold fish, and in 
whose centre was an island on which was built a 
castle of the most ingenious workmanship. 
Arches covered with flowering parasitical plants, 
and representing bridges, crossed the foot paths 
at intervals. Noskotoska*s garden was a fairy 
land to look upon, and a very Eden to walk in. 

" Ah I most noble sire," said I, " here you 
have leisure to cultivate and to enjoy the beauties 
of the earth, and better than all, you have the 
taste to appreciate the blessings and the fruits, 
which primitively are within the reach of man, 
and which still ought to be within the grasp of 
all, but which, alas, in the present state of 
society, in lands whose civilisation is European, 
are allowed but to few, and even then not un- 
tainted. How happy, most noble Noskotoska 
is your lot on earth !" 


" Yes," he observed, " I prefer my present 
state to my former one of a sea-gull, or yet my 
future one of a stork." 

I was amazed. 

" Sire," said I, addressing him, " my own 
thoughts recoil upon me. Do you believe in 
what you have just uttered — in the transmi- 
gration of souls — in — '* 

" Pardon me," he interrupted, in a jumble of 
Japanese and Dutch, which I had some difficulty 
in catching, so as to understand at the moment ; 
^'I spoke ironically. Such is the supposition 
with regard to the members of our family — it is 
legendary — ^it is mythological. I place no cre- 
dence in the doctrine, but millions throughout 
the empire have undoubted faith in it. I, how- 
ever, think it a delusion." 

" Yes," said I, " and a very snare." 

Soon after this we rose and entered the house, 
and the saloon of audience again, where tea and 
pipes were served once more. It was now near 
sunset, so I intimated to my host my desire to 
depart. Upon this, he expressed a hope that 
I would allow him the honour of accompanying 
me to the landing pier, whence his barge should 
convey me to the ship. I embraced his offer 


with many thanks and expressions of obligatior. 
One of the gendemea in gossamer was forth- 
with signalled for, and despatched to the water- 
side, to have the barge put in readiness. 
Immediately after this we left the house, I having 
taken leave of the ladies in the European 
manner by shaking their hands, a mode of action 
just as foreign to them as it was familiar to me. 
A laughable little incident, considering 
that it was Japanese, occurred at this junc^ 
ture. The reader will remember my having 
suggested the ceremony to the fair wife on a 
former occasion, when it was so readily complied 
with, she was therefore already acquamted with 
the new mode of salutation ; but with the other 
one, she only learned it a second previous to 
being herself called upon to do likewise, and that 
by seeing me shake the hand of her friend. This 
may account for her after-manner, for with an 
apparent disinclination to do things by halves, 
she extended both hands, and both hands were 
accordingly embraced. There was an uninten- 
tional and ingenuous exhibition of warmth abgut 
this, that awoke a smile on my part, which eli- 
cited a similar expression on their part, and so 
we parted, each looking wondrously happy. 


" Why does that lady wear two girdles ?'* I 
asked, alluding to a red band, fixed a little below 
the ordinary silk sash of a fair pedestrian. 

" Oh/' replied my companion, in Dutch, " that 
is the rikalo, it is the sign of — (ask the mid- 
wife) — the Sintoos adopt it from the time of an 
outward manifestation of the invisible." 

I thanked him for the information, the force 
of which I fully appreciated, yet I saw no reason 
why the Sintoos should wear a badge of condi- 
tion nevertheless. Coming events cast their sha- 
dows before them, with a vengeance, in Japan. 
However, thought I, if the ladies are satisfied, I 
have no right to complain. Happy consolation ! 

We soon reached the landing-place, having 
passed by dozens of gay equestrians, with led 
horses, and crowds of slow pedestrians on our 
way. Noskotoska intended to take an evening 
ride. He had no desire to witness an exhibition 
of theatricals ; the feasting after the first day of 
the three belonged to the vulgar only. He 
would be glad of my company on horseback, 
whenever 1 felt disposed. 

I did not much relish the idea of being walked 
up and down the street, after the Japanese manner. 

. *■ -^ r 

i. *. 


moreover it was time to go on board ; nevertheless 
I could hardly have resisted the offer of a gallop 
into the country and up those hill slopes, where 
the doctor and I had so assiduously botanized 
on the previous day, had such presented itself. 

The barge was in waiting to bear me to the 
ship; several of ours were on the pier and about to 
embark as, to their surprise, I followed Noska- 
toska down the steps. He would have a sail 
instead of a ride, and accompany me alongside. 
So to work went the sculls, spread was the 
square sail of light bamboo, and the gay craft 
glided swiftly o'er the tide, while the last hues 
of sunset were tinging the heavens, and making 
golden the waters, and decking the landscape of 
hiU and islet with fantastic light, fitftd as the 
beams of the uncertain moon, and varied as the 
rainbow of an eastern sky. 

The gangway ladder was reached ; I shook 
hands with my noble friend, and before I had 
gained the deck, his barge was again bearing 
him away to the dty, now fast becoming faint in 
the twilight. 





The morrow . came, wet and misty at the 
dawn, but gradually clearing away, till at eleven 
o'clock it was fair and bright, but with a show- 
ery aspect. I took boat for the shore at that hour, 
with the direct intention of making a second, 
and more minute exploration of Dezaim, and 
ascertaining what the Dutchmen were like, who 
inhabited that dingy4ooking factory ground. 
Crossirtg the bridge connecting the islet with 
the city, I entered the main street, and so on 
into the premises of the Dutch Company. Here 
I encountered a veritable Hollander, from whose 


dingy appe2a*aDCe and peculiar look, I was dis* 
posed to believe, figuratively speaking, that 

" Within his brain spiders their webs had wove," 

He appeared to be lost in a chronicstupor,tnore 
profound, even, than that usually induced by k^er 
beer, when assisted by the condiments of cheese 
and garlic. But a little conversation I foumd ope- 
rated powerfully upon him, and every moment he 
became less drowsy. It was like the break of day ; 
the gloom was being gradually yet quickly dis* 
pelled before the light of his brighter intelligence. 
I soon ascertained that he had been to Jeddo, and 
was one of the last embassy which had made 
the journey only four years before.* He was 
just the man, of all other Dutchmen in the 
world, that I most wanted. I expressed myself 
as unfeignedly glad that we had met^ and hailed 
him as a brother European. He was satisfied 
apparently with my credentials, for he invited 
me upstairs into his apartments, which were as 
desolate to the eye as he himself had appeared 
when I first saw him. The furoishiBg was semi- 

* The journey here alluded to was special, the perio- 
dical embassy having been previously discontinaed* 

G 2 


Japanese, without the elaborate richness and 
neatness of their furnishings. 

He invited me to be seated ; and, turning . to 
a side-board, drew forth a decanter containing 
about half-a-pint of brandy, and a Japanese 
porcelain jar of saki. To these he added two 
lacquer drinking-cups, two pipes, and a jar of 
native tobacco. He then sat down in front of 
a grate in which a slow fire was burning — 
the reader will recollect that the factory was 
built according to Dutch architecture—- and in- 
vited me to smoke. I complied by filling a pipe 
with the noxious weed. 

" You lead a very lonely life here," said I. 

My companion grunted, and thought he did. 

" How did you like Jeddo ?" I asked. 

He thought it very grand, and liked it very 
much. Would I take saki or brandy ? 

I chose the former, so did the Dutchman. 

To my gratification, after two or three whiflFs 
at his pipe, and the imbibition of a cup of what 
he called the native wine, he became talkative, 
and entered into a long narrative of his jovirney 
to the metropolis, which, being translated, reads 
as follows : — 



The first twelve mQes' travelling from Na- 
gasaki brought us to the shores of the Bay of 
Omura, which we crossed in boats, each rowed 
by fifteen watermen. The bay at this point was 
thirty miles wide. The city of Omura was seen 
to the righty at the head of the bay, and beyond 
it a volcanic chain, from a cone of which there 
rose up into the clear blue of the sky a thin 
column of smoke, that quickly wasted itself away 
in the midst of circumambient space. We 
reached Sanga, the capital of the province of 
Figen, on the second day. It is a populous city, 
with the most magnificent of castles, and the 
handsomest of streets ; the women paint them- 
selves more than is done at Nagasaki, and there 
is even more love of fashion and display among 
them than I have elsewhere seen. They pride 
themselves upon their resemblance to wax dolls, 
and esteem themselves, next to those of Miako, 
the handsomest women in Japan. This province, 
although less wealthy than that of Satsuma, is 
about the most fertile in the empire. It is 
particularly celebrated for ten varieties of rice, 



one of which is reserved for the special con- 
sumption of the Emperor. The rice-fields that 
we saw were bordered with tea^shrubs about 
^x feet in he^ht ; but, as they were stripped of 
their leaves, exhibiting only naked brandies, 
they rather took from the otherwise luxuriant 
aspect of the landscape than enhanced its pic- 

On the next day we entered the province of 
Ti^cugo ; and, having traversed a small but plea-^ 
sant grove of cedars, we sighted the eastle of 
the governing prince of that district, and passed 
by several coaX-mines worked for the supply of 
the district. Cattle and horses were grazing in 
the neighbourhood. 

In the evening we reached Kokara, the 
metropolis of Buigen, once famous, but now 
picturesquely dilapidated. The castle is of large 
size, of freestone build, and v^ massive. It 
had the customary tower of princely residences, 
consisting of six stories; and had a few em- 
brasures pointing cannon. A river winds 
tiirough the town, crossed by a bridge about two 
hundred yards long, but very shallow. Hundreds 
of boats were lying on the beach, at either side. 


On leaving our tea-house, where we had 
stopped to dine, we found the square in front of 
it, as well as the bridge, crowded with spectators 
who had gathered to see us, and who were 
nearly all kneeUng. We were now fifty-five 
native miles from Nagasaki. 

Embarking in boats, we crossed the strait sepa- 
rating Ximo from Nipon — a width of more than 
three miles strsught across, but more than twelve 
miles to the point for which we steered, namely, 
the town of Simonoseki. It is in the province of 
Naugato, and contained about a thousand houses. 
The harbour was full of junks, to the number of 
some three or four hundred ; it being a port of 
call, as well as a place of considerable maritime 
impcnrtance. We here saw a temple dedicated 
to Amida, and built to appease the ghost of a 
young pHnce of the famUy of Ferji, so celebrated 
in the legendary annals of the Japanese, whose 
nurse, with the boy in her arms, is said to have 
thrown herself headlong into the strait, to avoid 
capture by his. fiither's enemies, at the time of 
the capture and downfall of that family. 

We made the voyage from Simonoseka to 
Osaka in four days ; the junk anchoring each 


night in one of the many natural harbours with 
which the coast abounds. Our route lay first 
through the strait between Ximo and Nipon» 
and then through the great strait separating 
Nipon from Sikoff, which was studded with 
clusters of beautiful islets. On the mainland, 
on either side, lofty mountains, with snow-capped 
summits, were presented to the eye in imposing 
magnificence. The junk, or rather barge, could 
proceed no further than Fiogo — a city of the 
province of Setz, and about the size of Na- 
gasaki. Here we embarked in small boats for 
Osaka, sighting the city of Sakai on the way. 

Osaka is picturesquely situated on the banks 
of a navigable river in the same province, and 
boasts of a population of a million. At its 
eastern extremity is a strong castle ; and at the 
western end are two stately guard-houses of 
massive stone construction, which separate the 
city firom the suburbs. 

It occupies an area of about four miles. The 
river Jodogawa runs on the north side of the 
town, and empties into the sea a little below 
it. This river rises a day and a half s journey 
to the north-east, out of a midland lake in the 


province of Umi, which lake is reputed to have 
been created in a night by the force of a violent 
earthquake, which swallowed up the ground 
which now forms its bed ; two other rivers 
flow into the Jodogawa just above the castle, 
which are crossed by handsome stone and mar- 
ble bridges. The united stream having washed 
the northern portion of the city, part of its 
waters are conveyed through a broad canal to 
supply the southern part, which is by far the 
most extensive and fashionable one. Nume- 
rous smaller channels cut from this artery pass 
through the main streets of the district, and 
deep enough for the passage of boats, so that 
goods may be brought to the doors of the mer<- 
chants. More than a hundred bridges cross 
these streams, all of graceful, durable, and 
fantastic build, and constituting even in them- 
selves a beautiful sight. 

From the mouth of the main river up to 
Osaka, we passed more than a thousand boats, 
junks, and barges. The banks were raised on 
both sides by a series of ten or twelve retreating 
stone steps, so that a landing could be easily 
effected at any part of the entire length. Mag- 

G 3 


nifioenl metal, stotie^ and w<)oden bridges, deeo* 
vated with gFotesquie carviogs, spanned the river 
at every few hundred yards' distance, three o£ 
which were nearly as long as. the space of re* 
move from each other. 

The streets oi the city are regdarly biid 
out at right angles, but somewhat narrower 
than Japanese streets in general. They were 
ejcceedingly dean and neat, and had their 
side walks paved with small square stones re- 
sembling tiles. There were tiie usual number 
of gates crossing the sti^ets, which were closed 
at nightfall, when nobody was suffered to pass 
from one street to another without special leave 
from the Ottona. In every street thwe was 
the customary fire-house and water*engine, with 
a covered well attached. The houses were 
mostly two«>storied, the rest, of course, being 
single. They all glittered with lacquer-work, 
and their interiors were bedizened with showy 
ornaments and gildings, the walls being hung 
with the same shining paper and covered with 
the same curious paintings of cranes and drar 
gons, trees and flowers, as you may see in the 
city we speak in. 'Die upper part of the waU, 
however^ for some inches down from the ceiling. 


was in general uiioccupied, and mex^ely painted 
of a plain orange or gold coloixr, the latter manu*- 
fectared from earths, with which the neighbour- 
hood plentifully abounds. The mats, doors, 
and sliding screens were all of the same ^ze, 
namely, six Japanese feet long and three broad. 
The houses themselves, as also their several 
rooms, were built as elsewhere, according to the 
Barnber of mats th^ were intended to cootain. 
In the rear was the garden and bath-house. 

Osaka is the theatre of much pleasure and 
public diversion. It boasts of a local arn^ of a 
hundred thousand men, and manufactures the 
best of saki The castle was built by Taiko 
Sama, and is of most, massive and magnificent 
construction. In shape it is square, and has a 
circumference of about two miles. It is strongly 
fortified with round bastions, a feature peculiar 
only to Japanese architecture, but by no means 
an universal one. On the east and north sides 
its waUs are washed by the river, while to the 
south and west it faces the city ; its buttresses 
supporting the outer wall are two feet in thick- 
ness, but these, alike with the entire structure, 
are &st crumbling to decay. 

Immediately after our arrival we were ad- 




mitted to an audience of the governor of the 
city, to whose palace we were carried in kangos, 
attended by our whole train of interpreters 
and other officers. Entering at the main 
gate and crossing a parade ground some twenty 
yards in width, we came to the hall or guard- 
house, where our costume not befitting the 
august presence, we had each to invest ourselves 
in a silk robe of ceremony, lent us for the occa- 
sion by the chamberlain of the household. Four 
soldiers on duty stood near us, and eight other 
officers were seated in front of them. The wall 
acyoimng and on our right was fitted with re- 
ceptacles for arms ; fifteen halberds, twenty lances, 
and nineteen pikes were there arranged in their 
inroper order. The weapons were all of the 
finest make, and elaborately carved and orna- 
mented. We were conducted from this in our 
new apparel by two of the governor's secre- 
taries, through four apartments formed out of 
one large room by means of sliding screens, and 
whose walls were hung with military weapons, 
into the saloon of audience, and were invited to 
be seated in front of a recess arranged for the 
governor, and capable of being entered through 


a private doorway at its inner extremity. Tea 
was served in the presence of the imperial 
officers assembled^ and very soon a light screen 
was drawn aside within the recess, and the go- 
vernor entered^ bowed, and seated himself. He 
appeared to be about forty-five years of age, 
and some five feet nine inches in height, and of 
firm, stout build, active of limb, and with a broad, 
masculine face, bright with intelligence. The 
conversation which the officers had been carrying 
on with us ceased as, preceded by the usual 
hish I hish ! hish ! the chief entered his divan. 
He was clad in black, but covered with a gauzy 
doak of pale yellow crape. He said, in Dutch, 
that we were the most favoured of foreigners in 
the empire of the great Mikado, and that the 
honour of our being allowed to visit his metro- 
polis was a very high one, and whiph it was 
impossible to overrate, and which was allowed 
to none but the Dutch. He offered us whatever 
supplies we might require, and said that our 
passports would be in immediate readiness. In 
reply we thanked him, and begged his accept- 
ance of a small present of European curiosities. 
The governor upon this also thanked us, rose, 


134 TWO JOURNEYS TO S^^hif. 

bowed, and departed through the doorway by 
which he had entered, after which we were god* 
ducted back to the guard-house. Hiere we took 
our leave of the officers, re-entered our kangoa^ 
and returned to our hotel — the tea-house. 

On the Mowing momng we set out soon after 
dawn, in resumption of our journey to Miako^ 
which city we intended to reach before sunset 
We emerged from Osaka by the bridge of 
Kiobas, which crosses the river just below the 
castle. We then rode by the walled banks of 
the Jodogawa river, which lay on our lefk, half 
hidden by a line of Ic^y Tsadamia trees, whose 
branches were hung with yellow seed-pods, the 
oil of which is an article of internal commearce. 
The country was everywhere thickly peopled, 
the numerous small towns running into each 
other so as to constitute one continued street 
from Osaka to Miako. 

We passed through the celebrated city of Jodai 
from which this river derives its name. It is 
entirely surrounded by the arms of the streams 
alluded to^ which are crossed by bridges, and is 
much cut up with canab,so much so, as to remind 
me of Holland. In approaching it we rode across 

' JOURNEY 7HB SBCCS^]^. 135 

one suburban street about two iniles long, towards 
a handsome bridge of marble^ calied Jodobas, 
foiET hundred feet in length, and supported by 
forty arches^ all decorated with elaborate carvings^ 
At the end of this bridge was a single, well- 
guurded gate, through which we entered the 
city. The streets and houses we found to be 
of hmidsome construction, the former being 
about forty fe^t in width, and the latter two- 
storied, and each encircled by beautiful gardens. 
On thie west side of the dty stood the castle, 
recently rebuilt, and stsuading m imposing mag-^ 
nifioence upoR a high foundation raised in the 
centre of the river, the building itself being cor- 
nered wijdi stately towers of several stories, over- 
looking which there was a central one, from 
which rose a thin column of silver. Crossing 
ikie city, we reached another bridge, a little more 
tiian half the length of the last one, and sup- 
ported by twenty arches, as finely sculptured 
as the others. Passing over this, we approached 
another gate and guard-bouse, also denoting 
the limits of the town, and through which we 
emerged into the suburbs again. 

Two hours after noon, and after a ride of 



more than an hour and a half, we entered the 
suburbs of the town of Fusimi, itself a suburb of 
Miako. Here one continuous street extended 
into the great city. That street we were now 
in, and remained in, too, riding all the time, for 
more than five hours before reaching the metro- 
polis, such was its length. 

People were abundant, and public diversions 
were going forward, more or less, along the entire 

Miako wore a very animated and illumi- 
nated aspect, and the hotel, or tea-house, to 
which we proceeded, was crowded with pleasure- 
seekers. Our presence attracted but little 
attention. It being the ZetaSy or first day 
of the month, special services were going for- 
ward in all the temples, and there was much 
feasting and holiday making. The women were 
all richly attired, but as neat as usual. Jugglers 
and clowns were performing in theatrical houses 
open to the street, so that all passers-by as well 
as those within might behold. I saw one man 
spin a sort of peg-top in the air from a string 
which he had coiled round it, and which top he 
caught on the edge of a sword which he held 
in his hand before it had time to reach the 


ground, [and which he made run to and fro 
along the edge from the hilt to the point, finally 
poising it there, then jerking it up in the air 
several times, and causing it to alight on each 
occasion on the same sharp extremity. Then 
there was another performer, who stood up 
empty-handed, facing and surrounded by the 
spectators, and while all looked on, a large vase of 
flowers gradually rose up as if from an aperture 
in his skull, while a third was transformed, with- 
out any apparent cause, into three diiSerent 
characters in as many minutes; first, into a 
dragon, then a lion, and next into a large animal 
resembling a rhinoceros. I think that his dress, 
previously arranged, must have been worked by 
some sliding machinery which he controlled by 
an occasional jerking movement of the body, and 
that the great enlargement of size in the last cha- 
racter was either done by springs or the agency of 
some prepared gas hitherto pent up being brought 
in contact with the atmosphere, or a chemical in- 
fluence hitherto secreted and involved in the dress 
and so producing inflation. Nobody, however, 
seemed to be wiser than ourselves as to how 
these things were done, but we thought them 
wondrously strange. 


Some teenies which ky to the right, along 
the ascent of a neighbouring hiU, were brilliandy 
illuminated with many-coloured lamps, while the 
striking of their bells resounded faarmoniouBly 
in the twilight. 

At about eleven o'clodc on the following 
morning, having meanwhile enjoyed ourselves 
at the tea-house, where each had a small 
compartment allotted to him as sleeping 
quarters, we were waited upon by an offioer, 
followed by a train of attendants and horses, 
upon which latter we were invited to bestridb 
ourselves. This officer represented the governor 
of Miako, to whose palace, situated at the 
north-west end of the city, and opposite the im- 
perial castle, we were invited to proceed. So off we 
went, each man's horse being led by an attendant 
as demure-looking as his attire was picturesque. 

We reached our destination, and having dis- 
mounted, were conducted through a court-yard 
thirty feet in breadth, into the hall or guard- 
house, the common rendezvous of nearly all the 
officers o£ the household. Hence we were taken 
through two other rooms into a third, where we 
were invited to be seated. Soon afterwards in 


eame the chief secretary of the governor, to re- 
ceive, m the name of the htter, our names and 
whatever else we might have to offer in the 
form of comfdiments or presents. He was a 
finewlookiog man^ in about his^ sixty-second year, 
elad in an ash-coloured robe of ceremony ; and he 
politely thanked us in the name of the governor 
for our few presents and kiind inquiries^ Tea 
and pipes wei« now brooght hi and served to 
US. After the lapse of a quarter of an hour the 
audience was over, and the chief secretary him- 
self conducted ua again to the gate, followed 
by bis attendants, and thus our visit ended. 
This, it appeared, was the palace of the relieved 
governor, who was absent at Jecklo, the secular 
capital, in the enjoyment of his vacation. 

From this we proceeded on foot to the palace 
of the second and relieving governor. Four 
sentinels stood on duty at the gate, and the hall 
was occupied by about sixty people^ mostly 
(^cers of the household, the rest being mes- 
sengers and merchants in waiting for various 
purposes of their own. 

Through this hall we were conducted into a 
side apartment, where we were politely received 


by two secretaries of the governor, the invariable 
pipes and tea following immediately afterwards. 
We remained here nearly an hour, by which 
time we had expressed our impatience and been 
assured that the time of audience was near at 
hand. Then we were conducted into the grand 
saloon, where, after a few moments had elapsed, 
the folding screens of a divan were thrown back, 
and the governor appeared seated before us. He 
wore the usual light robe of ceremony over his 
black dress, and was of robust, but prepossessing 
appearance, and about thirty years of age. He 
greeted us simply with a bowing inclination of 
the head, and after uttering a few words of con- 
gratulation through his interpreter, the screens 
were again drawn forward by the two officers 
stationedon either side, and the interview was over. 

We, however, remained in the saloon for 
nearly an hour after this, during which time we 
had a second edition of tea, and were favoured 
with the presence of several ladies, whose cos- 
tume in magnificence far excelled anything that 
we had seen at Nagasaki. 

From this we were conveyed in imperial kangos 
direct to our hotel. 


Miako stands in the province of Jamatto, and 
occupies an extensive plain, encircled by hill and 
mountain ranges. The city approaches nearest 
the mountains on the east side, pn whose slope 
and along whose base stand the numerous tem- 
ples, monasteries, colleges, and other religious 
and educational edifices extending for miles. 

Three rivers rolling down from the hills tra- 
verse that portion of the city; the largest of 
these has its source in Lake Oitz, and the 
two first, uniting at one particular point, are 
crossed by a marble bridge four hundred feet 

The Mikado's palace is of immense size, and 
surrounded by dykes and walls, aloof from the 
rest of the city, and near it there is a large stone 
fortress or castle, available for the royal resi- 
dence if required, but now placed at the disposal 
of the Ziogoon on the occasion of his visits to the 
emperor. It is guarded by a wide moat, crossed 
by bridges, and has a circumference of nearly four 
thousand feet. Sentinels are constantly on duty 
at the gates, both during its occupation by, and 
in the absence of, the royal guest. 

The streets of Miako, alike with those of all 


other Japanese cities, are regularly built, and cross 
each other at right angles ; they are all sev^al 
miles in length, and present a very aninoated 
appearance, owing to the number of loungers, 
pedestrians, equestrians, and dogs, as well as the 
gay look of the shops, houses, and gardens, 
which line both sides of tiie way. The habita- 
tions are nearly all two-storied, and either of 
tastefully carved wood or stone. 

On the morning following the interview with 
the governors, we asked permission to view some 
of the temples, and accordingly we were escorted 
to several of them. The first one was ap- 
proached by a broad gravel walk, about half a 
mile in length, bordered on both sides with the 
stately dwellings of the priests. At this walk 
we alighted from our kangos, and passing through 
a high-arched gateway, ascended a flight of silver 
st^ to a large terrace, finely gravelled and 
planted with trees and shrubs. 

Entering by a handsome porch, we followed 
our Japanese leader up a beautiful lacquered 
stairway, leading into an inner court, fronting a 
magnificent building tastefully and elaborately 
ornamented with carvings in gold, silver, and 


lacquered work. In the middle of the outer- 
most ball was a shrine contaioiDg a large idol 
^th curled hair, surrounded by smaUer images. 
On both sides were other shrines, but smaller 
and less elaborate than the one just alluded to, 
and at the extremity of the hall were located 
two apartments for the emperor's use, their 
windows opening upon a beautifully cultivated 
garden, beyond which lay the slope of a natural 
hill, green with verdure, and well timbered. From 
this courtyard there was an opening into ano- 
ther courtyard, leading into the great hall of 
worship, but into that we were not admitted. 

Leaving this, we were conducted across a 
square to another such sanctuary, of a massive 
build, surrounded by a gallery, and supported by 
fifty-six silver pillars, ten feet in height, each of 
which were carved after the usual Japanese 
manner, with the heads of elephants, dragons, and 
things mythological. The most strildng feature of 
this building was its bended roofs, four in number, 
and rising over each other in succession, the lowest 
and largest of which spread over the gallery. The 
interior was a handsome vault, ridily gilded and 
%hted with many lamps. In a courtyard out- 


side of the building, was hung a large bell, near 
which rested a hammer of beechwood, used for 
striking the tones. 

From this we took our way to another and 
larger one, which was encircled by a high granite 
wall. A silver staircase of ten steps led up to 
the gateway, on each side of which stood a 
colossal image about twenty-five feet in height. 
The one to the right, which wore an aspect of 
perfect repose, had the face of a lion and the 
body of a man, and was coloured black and 
purple. That on the left resembled the human 
figure, and betokened energy, with open mouth 
and extended hand. They were both resting on 
stone pedestals, six feet in height, and were said 
to be emblematic of the two first principles of 
nature, the active and the passive, giving and 
taking, opening and shutting, generation and 

Within the gateway were sixteen stone pillars, 
used as candelabras and founts ; while inside of 
the enclosing wall was a spacious walk or gal- 
lery opening towards the inner courtyard, but 
covered with a roof which was supported by two 
rows of pillars about eighteen feet high, and 


twelve feet distant from each other. Directly 
opposite the entrance, in the middle of the court, 
stood the temple, a very lofty structure, with a 
double roof, supported by ninety-four piUars of 
brass, each nearly ten feet in diameter. In its 
interior the floor was paved with square red 
tiles. There were many small window-like 
recesses leading up to the first roof, but the 
edifice, with its lofty, dome-like ceiling, was 
very faintly lighted from without. It was un^ 
occupied, and two lamps only burned dimly in 
front of the altar. 

The next object of interest after the latter 
was a gigantic idol ; it was of wood, and in a 
sitting posture, supported by an equally propor- 
tioned lotus flower, cast in brass, and displaying 
in its tints much metallochromic skill ; the stem 
of this flower descended several feet to the 
ground, where it became lost in its own foliage. 
The idol, which was richly gilded, and variously 
ornamented, had long ears and curled hair, just 
revealed beneath a sparkling crown. A large 
red spot on the forehead was emblematic of 
something which I failed to comprehend. The 
shoulders, which were naked, were so broad as 





to reach from one pillar to another, a distance of 
thirty feet. The right hand was elevated, while 
the left rested on the thigh. 

This was an image of the great Buddha ; the 
body was seventy-seven and a-half feet high, 
and the entire statue, with the lotus, ninety feet, 
such being also the height of the building. 

The next temple whidi we entered was of 
great length, but disproportionate breadth. Oc- 
cupying a central position in its interior was a 
colossal idol in wood, highly coloured and or- 
namented, and furnished with the prodigal al- 
lowance of thirty-six arms. Sixteen black 
images, all larger than life, stood round it in 
a circle, while on each side were two rows of 
gilded idols, each of which was distinguished 
by the possession of twenty arms. On both 
sides of the temple, running from end to end, 
w^e ten platforms, rising amphitheatrically, on 
each of which stood fifty images of a life size of 
the colossal idol below. There the thousand 
twenty-handed statues stood, each on its separate 
pedestal, and arranged in rows of five, one be- 
hind the other, and all visible. On the hands 
and heads of aU these were placed smaller idols. 


to the number of forty each, so that the array 
was the most extensive as well as the most 
brilliant of the kind that I had ever seen. 

We only visited one more, and that was 
smaller than any of the others. The grand 
portico of the outer wall is denominated the gate 
of the two Mugs ; and by this we entered. In 
the vast interior of the building, which is eighty* 
four feet high, appeared, on either side, a colossal 
figure, twenty-two feet in height, representing 
two kings sacred in mythological history. In 
an edifice adjoining this, was suspended an im-^ 
mense and elaborately-carved bell, measuring 
eighteen feet from the shank to the lip, and at 
one time, if not now, the largest in the world. 

This temple is celebrated for a tomb in which 
were buried the ears and noses of the Coreans 
who fell in the war carried on against them at 
the dose of the sixteenth century, the said noses 
and e^ having been pbkled ^th salt on the 
Corean shores for the sake of their preservation, 
and so imported into Japan, and interred as war 

Miako is a city of great commerce, and the 
seat of large and ingenious manufactures, as 


well as being a great university and home of 
fashion. It is the great book-printing and pub- 
lishing city of the empire, and the occasional 
resort of the most learned men. Silks and 
crapes are wove, and copper is refined there on 
a large scale. The imperial mint is there, and 
metallurgists' shops are numerous, exhibiting a 
great variety of gold and silver flowers, and rare 
wprks of the jeweller's art. The best and scarcest 
dyes, the most elaborate sculpture and engraving, 
all sorts of tnusical instruments, pictures, lac- 
quered cabinets, swords, and other weapons and 
instruments of steel, automatic figures, conjuring 
apparatus, imitations of every non-perishable 
thing European ever - imported into Japan, ma- 
terials for scientific and other games, toys, and 
the finest and best embroidered robes of any 
in the empire, besides all those manufactures 
common to the other cities of the empire, 
which it would occupy hours to merely name, 
are all wrought and manufactured at Miako. 
And, withal, it is a city of proud nobles de- 
lighting in gaiety and pomp, where fashion and 
beauty congregate together, and the machinery 
of government and society works easily^ and 


every cog in its mighty wheel is emblematic of 
peace and contentment. 

We left Miako on the third morning following 
our arrival ; and, after a ride of about ten miles, 
entered the town of Oitz, situated at the south 
western extremity of the large lake of that name. 
The view was bounded' by a panorama of snow- 
capped mountains, and the hill sides were decked 
with numerous shrines, while along the base of 
the range the stately forms of more than a hun- 
dred temples rose up before our astonished gaze. 
• Emerging from the town, we crossed a mag- 
nificent suspension bridge spanning the Jodogawt^ 
— the river before-mentioned as having its source 
in this lake — and supported at either end by 
stone columns. Continuing on our way, we 
next passed through the village of Minoki, famous 
for the sole manufacture of a medicine of great- 
repute, said to have been found out by a poor 
but pious man, to whom the god of physic — 
Jacasi — revealed in a dream the ingredients — 
the latter consisting of certain bitter herbs grown 
upon the neighbouring mountains. This story 
80 promoted the sale of the medicine that the 
dreamer soon became wealthy, and enjoyed a 


notoriety to which that of Holloway^s pills may 
be supposed to bear but a very faint resemblance. 
He erected a temple opposite his shop, and 
adorned and dedicated it to the honour of Tacusi, 
and enclosed within which was a large gilt statvie 
of the said god exhibited in the act of treading 
upon a Terete flower, and wearing the scollop- 
like shell of a fish as a helmet. 

On the next day we crossed the Dsatsi Tama, 
« mountain ridge so steep that its descent was 
Hke that of a lighthouse-staircase. On this 
mountain there were many shrines and temples ; 
crowds of pilgrims from all parts of the empire, 
journeying to Isje, situated about forty miles to 
the south, here crossed our path. 

We struck the sea-coast at Jokitz, and after 
a further travel of nine miles, entered the city of 
Quano, in the province of Voari, situated at the 
head of a deep bay. It consisted of three divi- 
sions, the first and third being surrounded by 
moats and high walls, and the other and lower 
part being locked in by numerous smaU rivers. 
The castle walls were washed on three sides by 
the open bay, and were separated from the town 
on the other side by a deep moat, spanned by 
draw-bridges. At the latter place we dis- 


missed our horses and kangos, and travelled 
by barge down the bay to Mia, distant about 
fifteen miles. This city, though not so large 
as Quamo, had about three thousand houses, 
with two magnificent palaces, and a fortress 
of immense size and strength; also many 
stately temples, in two of which are depo- 
sited the eleven miraculous swords — three ii^ 
one, eight in the other — reputed to have been 
used by the race of demigods who first peopled 
Japan, three thousand years ago. 

At this town we passed the night, and re- 
suming oiu* journey on the following morning, 
reached Okasaki by noon, a town with about 
two thousand houses, a casde, and several large 
temples, lying at the head of a bay of that name. 
After this, we rode through several considerable 
places, of which Tosida, with a castle, temples, tod 
fifteen hundred houses, was the most considerable, 
and where we again halted at a tea-house for the 
night, at which no fee or reward was ever accepted, 
or indeed offered, in return for our entertainment 

We set out again on the next morning, 
and after riding some fifteen miles came to 
Ha-ra, with about five thousand houses, and 


having a fine harbour. We crossed the latter in 
boats, and on the other side we followed the road 
through a rather flat country, studded with rice 
fields and villages, as far as the town of Kake- 
gawa. A fire had just broke out as we entered, 
and all was uproar and confusion. Very soon 
the whole town seemed enveloped in flames. 

We, however, took our way to windward, and 
found our quarters at a tea-house, on an eminence 
surrounded entirely by leaping cascades. The 
fire burned till near midnight, nearly half of the 
houses in the place having been by that time 
destroyed. However, hospitality was liberally 
extended, and the ejected found food and rest 
in the dwellings of their neighbours. On the 
next morning we took kangos and crossed a 
steep mountain, descending on the opposite side 
to the shores of the Ojingawa river, which was 
then so shallow and rapid that a boat could not 
cross it, so that we had to ford it, or rather the 
Japanese, our bearers, had, for we sat very 
peacefully in our palanquins, admiring the 

From this we followed the road along a well- 
cultivated, well-villaged country, as &r as the 


city of Seruga, the capital of the province so 
called. The streets, as usual, were straight, and 
crossed each other at right angles ; they were of 
the widest kind, and lined with gay shops, and 
two-storied dwellings, with "their trim and taste- 
ful gardens, and traversed by richly-dressed 
crowds of pedestrians, and a few men on brightly 
caparisoned horses, the latter with their plaited 
and tufted manes hanging gracefully down the 
neck, so that the whole scene was as animated 
as it was pleasing. Paper stuffs, curiously flow- 
ered in the form of hats, baskets, and boxes, as 
also similar articles in lacquered ware^ together 
with those things already mentioned as exhibited 
at Miako. Here, too, was a local mint for the 
coining of itzabus and kobangs. The gover- 
nor's palaces were of stone, and encircled by the 
usual wall and moat, and spanned by draw- 
bridges. In the adjoining Bay of Totamini, 
there was a large dockyard and station for war 
junks, near which were several batteries, and 
fortresses reputed to be impregnable. 

Here we passed the night, . and on the next 
morning followed the road inland for the pur^ 
pose of crossing the great but shallow river, 


Fusiyama, which has its rise near the snow* 
capped mount of Fusiyama, and its embouchure 
near the head of Totamini, otherwise Seruga 

We crossed it in a handsome barge, used as 
a ferry-boat at that point. Here the sacred 
mountain towered above us high and stately, far 
into the mid-day void, its cone pierdng the 
azure blue of the heavens, and its rugged sides, 
blue as indigo, sparkling in the splendours of 
the flashing sky. Yes, here before us, loomed 
the mighty Fusiyama. The Japanese cannot 
find colours bright enough, or language grand 
enough, to paint the magnificence of Fusiyama. 
It used to be frequently, and still is occasionally, 
ascended by pilgrims for the worship of the god 
of the winds : the ascent occupying three days, 
and the descent only as many hours, owing to 
the use of reed sledges, which in winter glide 
over the snow, and in the summer over the sand 
which covers its slopes. After crossing the 
river, we continued our way in kangos through 
the mountainous country of Gacone, which runs 
out in a southerly direction fi'om the broad pe- 
ninsula of Idsu. 


At a small town hemmed in between a lake 
and a mountain, the lake itself in every other 
direction being surrounded by precipitQUS moun* 
tains, was a narrow pass, where imperial officers 
were stationed, and our passports were vised. 
There were about a dozen shrines and temples 
in the neighbourhood, and much dinging of bells 
and no small array of shaven-headed priests, 
who emerged from their consecrated dwelling tu 
behold us. 

This lake had but one outlet, and that was in 
the form of a cataract rolling over the moun- 
tains, and hurrying through over a rocky bed in 
the centre of a deil-like valley, along which our 
road wound as &r as the mouth of this said 
river in the bay of Jeddo. Here we came to the 
town of Odowarra, beautifully situated on an ex- 
tensive plain. It contained about two thousand 
houses, and was built in the form common to 
the Japanese towns already described. The 
palace of the governor, as also the numerous 
shrines and temples of the place, were situated 
on the north side of the town, and along the 
base of the mountains. We passed the night at 
one of the tea-houses here^ and on the following 



morning set out early, following the road lying 
along the north-west shore of the outer bay of 
Jeddo, crossed several bridges spanmng streams, 
till at length the mountains to pur left disap- 
peared, and we found ourselves on a thiddy- 
villaged and weQ-cultivated plain, extending to 

Off the shore we saw the island of Komo- 
tura, its high and rocky shores reminding us of 
the captives therein held, for to it the disgraced 
nobles of the empire are banished ; for this reason 
it is unprovided with a landing-place, all inter- 
course and supplies being received by the agency 
of a hoisting crane. 

Soon after this, the road crossed a promon- 
tory separating the outer from the inner bay of 
Jeddo, and before sunset the shore of the inner 
bay was reached. The country now became ex- 
oeedingly populous, an almost continuous line 
of towns and villages intersecting our path. We 
halted at Kanagan, a flourishing little town 
of about a thousand houses, and distant twenty- 
four miles from the capital. 

The ' latter, a sort of outer suburb of Jeddo, 
consists in chief of one long street, having 


a bay on the right and ia hill on the left, 
which was nearly covered with shrines and 

Several narrow streets led from this main tho- 
roughfere to the upper part of the town, which 
displayed the usual neat two-storied houses, gar- 
dened and verandahed. The temples were stately, 
highly decorated, and spacious buildings, oc- 
cupying positions as picturesque as themselves. 
They were adorned within with large gilt idols, 
and without with carved images of gigantic size, 
the latter approached by gates of unique con- 
struction and staircases of stone. One of them 
was remarkable for a magnificent tower five 
stories high. 

After riding more than two miles along 
the main street of Kanagawa, we stopped 
at a tea-house, whose windows and balconies 
commanded an extensive view of the bay as 
well as of the harbour and city of Jeddo, em- 
bracing thousands of junks, barges, and boats, 
and an exciting panorama of house-tops, tem- 
ples, and palaces glittering grandly in the sun- 
light. The smaller craft lay well in with the city, 
but die junks were moored at the distance of 


from two to five miles, owing to the shallowness 
of the water. A mile further on, we came to a 
gate and guard-house, which denoted the limit 
of Kanagawa and the entrance to the suburban 
precincts of Jeddo. The bay here approached 
so near the foot of the hill, that one row of 
houses alone intervened between it and the road, 
which latter for some distance ran along its 
margin. Afterwards, however, it widened con- 
siderably, and lined as it was on both sides with 
beautiful villa-like residences, it presented quite 
a diflferent aspect, at once gay and animated. 
Crowds of happy-looking pedestrians and eques- 
trians moved slowly to and fro everywhere. 
Diverging from this, we entered ' the great cen- 
tral street, which runs northward and entirely 
across the mighty city, passing over several 
stately bridges laid across small rivers and 
canals, which had their embouchure in the bay. 
The traffic along this street, which was about a 
hundred and thirty feet broad, was immense, 
and, from the absence of wheeled vehicles, had a 
peculiar effect. The whole scene was splendid 
aad half bewfldering ; such magnificence com- 
bined with activity I had never before witnessed ; 


but for ten miles this same street was just as 
animated and as thickly built along. It was a 
wondrous sight that Broadway of Jeddo. We 
passed by several princes in norimons, each 
preceded and followed by a numerous retinue, 
as also ladies in similar conveyances, and arrayed 
in the most magnificent costumes. The shops 
were all handsome structures, with attractively 
arranged wares in their open fronts : druggists 

I and bookseUers, robemakers and drapers, idol- 

mongers and glass-blowers, goldsmiths and pic- 
ture-dealers, merchants and agents, and a hun- 
dred others, were all presented in rapid suc- 

^ No one seemed to heed or care about us; 

I we appeared to be the most insignificant of 

groups as we rode past two miles of shops and 
fifty cross streets, and were conducted by our 
chief guide, fi*om Nagasaki, to the right along a 
street crossing the great thoroughfare at right 
angles, in which we turned our horses' heads 
into the court- yard attached to a large and 
handsome tea-house, at which we were destined 
to fix our quarters. 

The river, two of whose branches we bad 


already crossed, rises to the westward of the 
city, and sends off a considerable arm, which 
encompasses the castle, and thence falls into the 
harbour in five distinct streams, each of which 
is distinguished by a particular name, and 
spanned by a massive bridge of stone, chastely 
ornamented. The largest of these, Niponbas, 
or the bridge of Japan, is two hundred and fifty 
feet in length, and is famous as the point from 
which distances are computed throughout the 
island. The local government is the same as 
in the other cities of the empire, two governors 
commanding in rotation, while the number of 
mayors and ottonas are in the same proportion 
to the streets and houses as they are elsewhere. 
The palace of the Ziogoon, or secular emperor, 
Was situated near the centre of the city^ where its 
grand old walls of stone, extending in a some- 
what circular form, occupied a circumference of 
about twelve miles. Within, it had three dis* 
tinct divisions, each walled in and surrounded by 
a moat with drawbridges. The first and outer- 
most division, consisting of a series of palaces built 
in rows, and forming streets, covered a large space 
of ground, and was appropriated to the reigning 


princes of the empire while in Jeddo, and to their 
families, a separate palace and court-yard being 
assigned to each. The second division extended 
over a much smaller space of ground than the one 
just mentioned, but was invested with more show 
of pomp and a more numerous miKtary guard. 
In it resided the highest and most powerful 
dass of imperial officers constituting the supreme 
council of princes of the empire, a sort of House 
of Peers, but more limited in the number of its 
members. The third division, in which the 
Ziogoon had his residence, occupied a slightly 
elevated site, and was more strongly fortified 
than the others, its walls bemg furnished with 
tall towers, which gave an. ornamental look to 
the exterior. 

I may here mention that all these divisions 
and palaces were of stone, and as massive in ap- 
pearance as they were picturesque. The ma- 

brass without mortar, in order that the structures 
might the more firmly hold together against the 
shocks of earthquakes ; and the carvings were 
of the most elaborate kind. From the centre 
of this palace a square tower of white marble 



rose high above the surrounding architecture, 
sind called forth the admiration of every beholder. 
It was four stories high, and adorned with as 
many eaves and other picturesque designs. The 
appearance of this division was magnificent be- 
yond description ; dragons in gold or some such 
device surmounted every corner and projection of 
the citadel-shaped buildings. 

There were two small side castles within this 
enclosure, where the infant princes and prin- 
cesses of the empire, being children of the Zio- 
goon, were housed and educated. In the rear 
of the imperial residence were extensive and 
beautifully cultivated gardens, extending over 
a rising ground, which were bounded by groves 
of venerable cedar and plane trees, stretching 
along the summit of the hill. 

On the morning after our arrival, we were 
furnished with black silk robes of ceremony, 
and escorted from our hotel by four officers of 
the third governor of Nagasaki, then at Jeddo, 
and their attendants ; we rode to the imperial 
palace there, to have an audience of the em<* 
peror. Passing through the grand entrance, 
we found the entire way lined with halberdiers. 


arrayed in a blue and crimson uniform of sUk, 
and presenting a most brilliant and imposing 
appearance, each having his two silver and gold 
mounted swords in their appointed sheaths 
within the sash. 

After proceeding about two miles, we came to 
the Fiakniabin, or great guard lodge of the 
palace. Here we alighted and left our horses 
and servants, who were conducted away to ap- 
pointed quarters, there to await our return after 
the audience. We were at once ushered into 
the saloon of the guard house and the presence 
of the two captains of the guard, the latter con- 
sisting of a hundred men, who politely received 
us, standing, and with much bowing, after which 
tea and pipes were served. They informed us 
.in Dutch, that as soon as the great council of 
state met, we should have an audience. It was 
not long before a herald arrived to announce 
the imperial presence, and who, with his train of 
attendants, conducted us through two gateways, 
the gates being of metal, uniquely carved and 
gilt, and thence across a square lined with troops 
in a black silk uniform, to the chief entrance 
hall of the imperial residence, which was ap- 


proached by a few long steps made of numerous 
smaU and many-coloured stones, polished like 
diamonds. From this we were conducted up 
two others into a spacious apartment, forming 
an elevated continuation of the hall. This was 
the waiting-room. Its walls* and screens, and 
ceiling and the pillars supporting it, were all 
brightly gilded and tinted with the most beau- 
tiful of colours. The matting on the floor was 
fringed with a peculiar embroidery of gold, and 
the windows, which, when closed, admitted but 
a sombre light, were decorated with figures in 
the highest style of native art, so that in aspect 
it was altogether brilliant. We remained here, 
seated on blue velvet ottomans, for about a 
quarter of an hour, when a herald entered, ^and 
exclaimed, ** Captain of the Dutch !" upon which, 
that personage followed him into the presence of 
the council, while we still remained in the wait- 
ing-room. The ceremony of audience lay sim- 
ply in his crawling " on all fours" to the foot of 
the throne, and there bending his forehead till it 
touched the ground, after which he performed a 
retrograde movement out of the room again, in 
just the same position, his face still being di- 


rected towards the emperor^ who spoke not. 
This is the common ceremony, performed in 
exactly the sai&e manner by all the princes of 
the empire. 

Our captain described the scene withi& the 
hall of audience as the most grand and majestic 
he had' ever witnessed : the thousand mats with 
which it was covered, each bordered with gold— ^ 
the imposing array of high officers of state, the 
impressive silence and the brilliant decoration and 
gilding of the ceiling, walls, and windows, and 
above all> the magnificence of the throne itself, 
and the solemn majesty of its sovereign occu- 
pant, contributed together to make the spectacle, 
in the eyes of a crawling man, the ** observed 
of all observers," as something approaching the 

After the return of our headsman, we were 
conducted, along a passage running to the left^ 
as we emerged through the doorway of the 
waiting-room : from this we were led through 
several compartments into a gallery curiously 
carved, gilded, and coloured. Here were several 
physicians and priests of the household, who at 
once entered into conversation with us. From 


this we were again led through several other 
galleries having windows of coloured glass instead 
of painted paper, our path being lined the entire 
way with standing troops clad in black silk, and 
bearing an avenue of symbolic staffs, richly 
lacquered and gilt, but not unlike barbers' poles ; 
the vista terminated in a second saloon of audi<- 
ence, much smaller than the first, and into 
which we were all ushered. There was a cen- 
tral spot to which we were conducted, and re- 
quested to be seated on ottomans placed for that 
purpose. Tea and confectionery were here 
served to us, alike with the chief officers of the 
household present. 

From one side of the room numerous eyes 
were levelled at us through rows of opera-glass^ 
looking apertures piercing the wall ; from 
glimpses which we occasionally caught of the 
observers, we saw that they were ladies, although^ 
from previous report, we knew that it had been 
usual for the wife of the emperor and the ladies 
of the court to assemble together behind screens 
thus ventilated, for the purpose of scanning the 
members of our periodical embassy,* which 

* A contrivance not unlike, the ladies' gallery incur 
British House of Commons. 


was formerly undertaken annually, and subse- 
quently quadriennially, but is now only required 
on special occasions. It was on such an occasion 
that I went, and I think it wiU still remain the 
last journey of the Dutch to Jeddo. 

Meanwhile, the Ziogoon had entered and 
seated himself incog, in a circular diwaUy on an 
elevation at the extreme end of the room, and 
in so sombre a light, and so much screened by 
attendants and curtains, that we could hardly 

During this time we spoke to each other 
only, if at all ; and immediately after dispatching 
the refireshment offered, were conducted once 
mor« with great pomp through a series of 
strange lobbies, halls, and galleries, till we 
emerged from the palace, and finally reached 
the guard house, where we had left our horses 
and servants. Here we remounted, and rode 
back to our inn. 

On the following morning we visited in the 
same manner the third governor of Nagasaki, 
who had his palace in the first division of the 
imperial buildings. He welcomed us warmly, 
and^ after having partaken of tea and a pipe 


with US, adjourned to another saloon than the 
one of audience, where a repast was served, con- 
sisting of several soups, half-a-dozen varieties of 
fish, induding oysters and pickled salmon, sliced 
birds, hot cakes, confectionery, plum wine, in- 
toxicating saki, omelettes, ginger, lemon, and 
orange, the two last in a preserve of wine, and 
sundry other and indescribable things, of which 
we partook with much gusto, and to our entire 

We returned to the saloon of audience after 
this, where several magnificently-attired ladies, 
members of the governor's famUy, soon made 
their appearance, and drank tea with us, mean- 
while talking in a low tone either to the go- 
vernor or the officers present; the latter of 
whom occasionally questioned us, in Dutch, 
direct. In fact, they were the mouthpieces of 
the governor, it being Japanese etiquette with 
reigning princes to hold conversation with 
foreigners only through interpreters ; and this is 
as much to preserve great dignity as to prevent 
misunderstandings, the interpreters being usually 
the best versed in Dutch, English, Chinese, or 
any other language known in the empire. After 



a stay of about two hours in a]l| we took our 
leave of the governor, returned to our hotel at 
the sign of the Fox, where presents of many 
robes of silk were delivered to us by the imperial 
officers ; and, on the day following, we took our 
departure en route again for Nagasaki. 

Once more we were riding in single file along 
the dean, well-kept highways, arrayed in Ja- 
panese cloaks of oiled paper, stained with various 
figures, and so capacious that they covered both 
man and horse — once more in our umbrella- 
shaped hats of light bamboo, cool and light as 
the cloaks, and fastened under the chin by rib- 
bons, while before and behind us, our Japanese 
guides, with the ends of their robes stuffed into the 
immense pockets of their immense but tapping 
riding trousers, handled their silken reins, singing 
gaily as they went. 



mmm^mmamn^mmmmimmmmmmm'9mm Si ^^^ , 



Hours had ehpsed since the time of our meetiog, 
before the Dutchmw and I parted -, but when 
^ moment ol that ioedtable event airivedy I 
shook the hand of the good old Hollander with 
a warmth and interest whidi almost amounted 
to affection. 

" Poor fellow !" said I to myself; " he yearns 
for Vaterland. Would that I could transport 
him thither 1 H^ has been too long estranged 
from home and country — ^from the sight of his 
native windmills, and the cheering mfluence of 
Lager bier. He lives in a beautiful country, 
yet he seems not to participate in its joys. 

Would that I cdttld cause one ^y of felicity to 
flash acro^ his^ saddened sod; for, by nature 
sombre, his mind^^his spirit has been deadened 
by monotony ; be has been sdone of the factory, 
and not of Japas. He came fbr gain, and the 
filling of the lucne-bag by the driblets of a stipend 
is still the highest-^the only object of his am-^ 

We parted, but to meet agab« After this; 
I took my lonely way to the house of Noskotoska. 

I found him seated alone on his cool verandah, 
^aded from the vivid sunlight which decked the 
flowery prospect befote him. A cup of tea, and 
materials for smoking, had just been depositrd 
on a table by his side. 

** Welcome,^' said he, speaking from his otto- 
man, " I am happy in thy presence. Come hither, 
and be seated ;" and he shook me warmly by 
the hand. 

"Another bright and glorious day," I ob- 

" Yes,'* he responded^ " another ray of light 
and beauty. Thi» is the ha/pp^' and festive 
season in which all nature pulsates with joy ;-*^ 
when the landscs^ smiles^^ and the feathered 


.1 ■!! I L. 1^.--.^. 


throngs niiite in song ; and every living thing 
disports in the gladness of its existence. This 
is the noonday of the year — the heyday of life. 
I rejoice in it exceedingly. Poet-philosophers 
and stoic-philosophers, mathematicians and toilers 
more obscure, are alike with sucklings in the 
enjoyment of felicity beneath a sky so fair, and 
when imbibing an atmosphere so balmy and so 
vivifying as this.'* 

" Thy words," said I, " are as jewels newly 
fallen from the richest casket of human intellect. 
They embody truth and eloquence. I con- 
gratulate thee on the possession of so good a 
philosophy, blended with so much poetry « of 
feeling. You, most noble Noskotoska, can ap- 
preciate the beauties of nature — the grand — the 
magnificent — the sublime. Your mind can soar 
above the dust you tread, and can feast on its 
own acquirements, aloof from the mere animal. 
Yet how many there are who in ' the human 
form divine' are but animals of superior instinct 
Noskotoska, we, as kindred spirits, can exchange 
these thoughts, these sentiments, and enjoy the 
communion which it affords; but, in other 
lands, it would be vain to hold such converse 



with the earthy — ^with plodders only after gold — 
who prefer its search to the glories of learning — 
the explorative researches of metaphysical and in- 
ventive science. Yet I would not, believe me, 
noble sir, wish to see a race of unprofitable 
labourers in the vineyard of learning — ^for light 
should give forth light. But in the country from 
which I come, thousands waste their lives away 
in planting that which, alas ! too often beareth no 
fruit. I quote the words of ' England's greatest 
novelist' when I say, but with pain : — 

^ ^ It is a melancholy sight, which none but 
those educated at a college can understand, to 
see the debilitated frames of the aspirants for 
academical honours; to mark the prime, the 
verdure — the glory — ^the life — of life wasted 
irrevocably away in a lobar ineptiarum which 
brings no harvest either to themselves or others. 
For the poet, the philosopher, the man of science, 
we can appreciate the sacrifice; from the dark- 
ness of their retreat there goes a light — from 
the silence of their studies there issues a voice 
-—to illumine or convince. We can imagine 
them looking from their privations to the £30* 
visions of the future, and hugging to their 



hearto, in the sb^ngth (^ ao uenMuf al vmitjr, 
the reward ^hicb their l^bour^ ^e certauoi Imt^- 
after to obtain. To those who eae anticipiate 
the yast doatinioDS of knmortaUty aniong men, 
what boots the stedlity of the cabined and petty 
present ? Brnt the mene man of language and 
kaming-^the inachine of a memory hearty but 
unprofitaUy employed — ^tbe Columbus wwstiog 
a(t jtbe galley- oar the energies which should have 
difi€oyei3ed a world-^for him there is no day- 
dream of the future^ no grasp at the immortality 
of fame. Beyond the walls of his narrow room 
he ksaows no object ; beyond the elucidation of 
a dead tongue, he inddges no ambition ; his life 
is one long schoolday of lexicons and grammars 
-^T^ fabric of ice, cautiously excluded from a 
single sunbeaipm-elaborately uselesa, ingeniouflfy 
unprofitafale \ and leaving at the moment it mdts 
away, not a i^gle ^ace of the ^ce it occupied, 
or die labour it cost/ " 

*' How lamentable I" observed be, ^' that ob- 
jects which deserve so wdll should meet with so 
transitory a carreer, so obscure a fate; for the 
acquisition of learning is a high achievement, 
and, after his God, next worthy of m^n's sub- 



liooest aspiratum9. In Nrpon we piize and exalt 
its possessor— we magnify his worth — we im- 
mortalise his name/' 

At this stage of tiie- coBversatton. I wa» served 
by a koeeliiig attendiaDt in gossamer with a 
siuoerless cup of muopUsticated tea, and a small 
hequered tray, eontaintog the usual materials 
fixf smoking, as also a gaily painted, fiyn ; for I 
had left my own on board. 

*^Thi8," said I, '' is ow last day in port." 

'* Alas !" Noskotoska r^retted it. 

** Your g<D(?emm«nt/' I conjticHied, *^ will not 
a&ow us to stay any longer. We only called 
here for wood and water, and ought to have 
left on the day after our arrivat.'^ 

I was interrupted by the appearance of Uie fair 
wke. I rose and took her gentfy by the hand. 

Chi lea^^ng tiie ship, I had folded in tissiKi 
paper, and deposited in the two pockets of my 
coat, a pocket volume of Byron, a ditti^ Ga- 
zetteer, and two one shilling books, renntrkable 
for their iUuminated paper wvapp^s, and the 
^ fan" which they eontdned, and as having* 
been published in Paternoster Row; amd this; 
wag in redemption of my promise to enrich my 



host's stock of English literature. I was sorry 
that I could do no better, but unfortunately I 
possessed no library, and having a profound and 
cautious respect, both by nature and habit, for 
the laws of meum and iuum, I felt in no way 
disposed to run the risk, be it remote as un- 
known worlds, of being indicted for ** petty lar- 
cenjf* by poaching over the library of the ship 
for the sake of even Noskotoska and Japan. For 
temptation to me is a thing I spurn, and a vapour 
whose influence would never be felt ; it is, alike 
with its next companion, intimidation, a power — 
a vice which I, alike with every man of courage, 
self-reliance, and magnanimity, would never 
yield to ; that man, who is not sufficiently reso- 
lute, and who has not sufficient pride of intellect 
to resist both, is an object rather of pity than re- 
proach ; for he that is not master of his own ao* 
tions, surrenders his spirit of self-dependence, and 
exposes himself to the caprice and mockery of 
apes — ^yea, often worse — to ruin — to the gallows. 
In addition to the four trifles mentioned, I 
carried in a small roll half-a-dozen steel en- 
gravings, embracing views of English scenery. 
These together I delivered over to Noskotoska, 




^ith many expressions of regre't that such was 
my poverty, I could do no better in the bestowal 
of a more worthy gift. I, however, made him 
acquainted with the genius and world-wide fame 
of Byron, several of whose works were encased 
in the volume before him. 

^^The greatest poet that England and the 
world ever produced/' said I, " here speaks to 
you. Yet, I am sorry to say, that Byron, now 
Igng dead, although his widow stiU survives, is 
excluded from a niche in the ranks of his bro- 
ther poets, in a national sanctuary of ours, called 
Westminster Abbey." 

*^ Why is one so great not enrolled in their 
number ?" he asked. 

'' On the ground of mere dass prejudice," I 
replied. "A few ecclesiastical dignitaries did 
not esteem his views to conform sufficiently to 
theirs. In fact, he was too unconventional for 
them. One old gentleman in particular thought 
him addicted to • ungodly glee.* " 

''Ah,'' said Noskotoska, thinking no doubt 
of Buddha, Sintoo, and Co., and looking as if 
he had just explored a secret — '* in what God 
did he believe?" 

I 3 


" In th^ Go<f of untvenEial oftture/' I repliad. 

" Well, that )« very comprehensive/' he re*, 
marked^ apparently satisfied with the answer ; 
" but the possessor of ideas so vast would not he 
Uki^ly to stoop to false gods, or lesser gods than 
Him of universal native^ neither would he bow 
down before images ; mi his innate phOosopby 
would teach him that which was right." 

"Just so," I remarked; "but the present 
i^e is one of progress and enlightenment^ where* 
in men's mipds a« bworoing more libenJ wd 
expansive with the flight of every year, and in 
the course of time there is no doubt that Byron 
will have his niche withm the sacred preobcts 
of that crumbling abbey of Westminster, the 
exclusion from which hitherto has been ^ just 
cause for national reproach, 

Noskotoska handed the engravings, one by 
one, to his wife, after examining them himself* 
They both appeared to be itiiuch pleased with 
the style of art. He then remarked the beauty 
and nobility of Byron's head and face, as pour* 
trayed on the title-page of his poems, and posi- 
tively laughed at the humorous embellishments 
outside the shilling books. He thought tliem 


at qnce like and unlikA the vclumes oC ht& own 
oojuntry,, hut the humour and espressioo; of the 
pieturea wm quite uew to, and alfaost puzzled 
him to coim{)reb<«d» 

'' The sua is siokuig/' seaid he at. leDgd:i|» *^ Idi 
us go forth aod. rido." 

*' With all my heart," waa the ready response, 

ther^iore responded thus brie%; under ordd^ 
nary/ circumstances I should have sai(^ ^ I shaU 
haye miuch pleasure. It will afford ms modi 
joy, and magnify mine own importance to> be- 
stridte thy siteed, in company with thyseUv most 
noblfi Noskatoska." 

As it was, the peculiarity of my mply caught 
tibe quick ear of the Japanese, and thmking, 
perhaps,, that I spoke interrogatively, he said, 
" With all your heart !r— Why, could yow ride 
with half— with less than all of it ?'' 

I smiled, and replied in tibe. negatire, saying' 
that the exprei^on was colloquial in England^ 
and meant — what I meant, reader. 

He was enlightened. He tapped the small 
l»razier before him with his fan, an attendant 
presented himself and a pair of saddled horses 


were ordered to be brought to the door. In a 
few minutes afterwards, we were astride of them. 
The saddles were of unique and daborate con- 
struction, the materials employed in their ma- 
nufacture being deerskin, tanned bullock's hide, 
silk, and gold and silver for the embroidery* 
The stirrup leathers were very short, and the 
stirrups were of silver, and shaped like a shoe ; 
the reins were of silk, and fastened to the bit. 
Our horses were led into the suburbs, it being a 
point of dignity with my companion that his 
quadruped should be so conducted. 

I was sorry to find that I could not compli- 
ment him on the possession of very fine animals ; 
they were only fourteen hands high, and moreover 
were too cat-hammed and ass-headed to please 
me. I did not fail to acquaint him with these 
defects in drawing a comparison between his 
horses and the hunters I bad been accustomed 
to sit in my harum-scarum days, when I cared 
as little about my neck as I did the reverse for 
a good day's hunting. 

We rode towards the place of temples — the 
ecclesiastical region at the foot of the hills. The 
entire way was lined with shops and inviting 



villas, and crowds, as usual, thronged the streets, 
all picturesque in costume and happy in look. 
The clanging of bells was heard as we approached 
the site of the imposing buildings. Thousands, 
Noskotoska informed me, were then engaged in 
their devotions. We at length reached an ave- 
nue which was comparatively free from traffic, 
and at the end of which we found ourselves in 
front of a magnificent Buddhist sanctuary. No 
worship was going forward in this, so we en- 
tered it. 

On each side of the massive stone portals 
was an immense image carved out of wood, and 
in a sitting posture ; the one figure to the right 
was depicted in speaking action, with extended 
hand, the other as a listener, the personification 
of repose. They were both well executed, 
painted, and much superior to anything of the 
kind that I had seen elsewhere in Japan. The 
features were very naturally coloured and ex- 
pressive. Passing between these, along an inner 
walk or avenue about two hundred feet wide, 
well gravelled and lined on both sides with 
handsome stone candelabras and fountains, we 
entered a kind of pavilion, in which were nume- 


rou8 images, a little b^ond whidin we foutid 
oursielyes at the foot of a ffight of eight atone 
stept}, beautijEully painted with figures, and ceach- 
ing to the. grand entrance of th& tempk its^. 
We ascended, and feufkd oursetres within view 
of several screens, on which flow^s, dragons' 
heads, and the stork were the most conspicuous 
objects. On each side of this pordb; stood a 
colossal figure of some fabulous animal, whidi 
must have largely taxed the ijoaagination of tiie 
artist concerned to produce ; it was something 
between a griffin and a hippopotamus, and, ac- 
cording to the vague account of Noskotoska^ 
held high rank in the mfyth<4ogy of Japan^ as 
connected with earthquakes. The porch, which 
was ample, was sustained by pillars of lacquered 
wood, bearing many a carved device of the same 
mythological character as the figures last de- 
scribed> We found the immense interior to be 
choked up with sliding panels, dividing the halt 
of worship into abwt a hundred compartments » 
The walls, so far as I could see; were hung with 
pictures done on paper and varnished over; 
images were also plentiful in their appdoo^ 
recesses. The same sombre aspect chacact^ised 


— igwg L.jiaflPwuo *gwegg «JUiiHJjya n 9..M-Jwm!tr -:^'r - i^' 


tiie interior of this sanctuary, as belonged to those 
before described, and the floor was covered by the 
same description of fine matting, but here with a 
gQt border, as I had found elsewhere. The soli^ 
tude, the silence of this place was impre8siye» and 
Noskotoska preserved the most profound gravity 
while he remained within the precincts of the sa^ 
ered pile, coupled in my belief with a little private 
devotion, for, as I have before said, the Japa* 
nese respect the religion of their neighbours. 

Coloured lamps were burning in front of 
the central shrine, but not a priest, or aqolyte, 
or devotee was to be seen. We did not walk 
round the building, as my companion appeared 
to deem such a performance little less than de^ 
secratipn. Under these circumstances, we quitted 
the building after a stay of about five minutes. 

Emerging again into the outer avenue, we 
mounted our steeds and ascended the slope of 
the hills about half a mile, and as far as a shrine, 
whose height and picturesque appearance very 
much attracted my attention. It was partly 
surrounded by camphor-laurel-trees, and arbo* 
resoent mimosas. It was approached by a flight 
of ten stone steps, leading into a circular in* 


terior, in which were numerous stone images, 
and slabs on which characters as well as figures 
were neatly carved, and in front of which worship- 
pers prostrated themselves. It was of wooden 
construction, but richly gilded, and the floor 
was covered with the coarser kind of matting. 
It had a circumference of about a hundred feet, 
and was encircled by a well-kept garden, which 
a late devotee was then watering from a fountain 
near the entrance to the building. 

Remounting our horses, we descended and 
rode along the base of the declivity, within view 
of a beautiful panorama of temples, beyond 
which lay the wide-spread city. We reached a 
wide gap in the architecture after a ride of about 
a quarter of a mile, and directing our nags 
through it, we found ourselves between two 
stately Buddhist temples. We dismounted and 
entered the broad avenue leading to one of 
them, the tiled roof of which rose about eighty 
feet from the ground, and was supported 
by the same intricate arrangement of girders, 
posts, and tie-beams, resting upon large lacquered 
pillars, as belonged to a simimilar edifice I had 
seen at Hakodadi. It was approached by ten 

I" iwpi  111 — ^(vi^vHP im ■■■■w^tni'^vi t " '■m**^^^^mvpp^^ 


long stone steps, at the head of which were 
squatted, on either side the porch, two colossal 
statues of Buddha, carved in wood and painted. 
The grand haU of worship was in shape a paral- 
lelogram, and of immense size ; it was lighted 
faintly by painted windows, which enhanced its 
splendour of effect. Its walls and cornices were 
elaborately carved, gilded, and painted over with 
figures of the mythological order. The floor 
was covered with the usual fine matting, and 
bordered with an embroidery of gold. The 
shrines, three in number, were decorated with 
burning lamps of various colours, also with long 
tapers. The sculpture and colouring were ex- 
quisite ; gold and porcelain vases, and images 
in gold and silver, were numerous ; ornaments 
in wood and brass, displaying the most skilful 
workmanship, and offering designs of dragons, 
the tortoise, and the stork, lay about the great 
altar, and the same air of solemnity that per- 
vaded the other tabemades we had just visited 
prevailed here. 

Sliding panels intervened between the fanci- 
fuUy-carved pillars by which, with the aid of 
folding screens, the shrines could be readily par- 


titioned off into separata compartoieats. Gay- 
plumaged birds flitted to and fro, depicted on 
the wall at the back of the shrines, and that 
part of the ceiling immediately above it pre- 
sented a perfect Eden to the eye. On the 
whole, everything was rich and massive; the 
space allotted to worshippers was, as usual, 
empty, a few sliding screens alone filling up the 
the void. 

Quitting very soon the precincts of the tem- 
ple, which was backed, alike with aU such, by a 
necropdis, and smrouoded by beautiful gardens, 
with here and there an alcove, a fountain, and an 
artificial pond for gold fish, we remounted our iiv 
teUigeht steeds and rode homeward by a circuitous 
route, involving a continuation of our journey 
along the slope of the hiUs. I now requested the 
groom holding dominion over my horse to let 
gOy upon which, as much, no doubt,, to the asto- 
nishment of the steed concerned as to his own^ 
and the two attendants, I went off at a oantcr. 
The animal decidedly expressed a liking for the 
sudden change in the dispoisation of tlnngs, 
and I did not attempt to rein him la tiUI had 
passed from the gaze of Noskotoska^ who wa$ 


getting along at his highest speed half a mile 
behind. Then I turned and cant^ed back again, 
creating a sensation among the three not unlike 
that said to have been produced in England on one 
occasion by the famous ride of John Gilpin, the 
humorous creation of the hypochondriac Cow- 
per. My attendant looked horrified, and seemed 
greatly to pity the animal I bestrode, while 
Noskotoska and his leader seemed equally 
amazed at a performance so unusuaL I had a 
hearty laugh at this little episode, which proved 
singularly contagious, for the trio as suddenly 
gave way to feelings of mirth also. I here 
related to my companion the adventure of the 
saiUng master with a Simoda horse, vvhich 
amused him much. 

It was now sunset — beautiful, resplendent ; 
the hues of the sky were reflected upon the 
glittering roofs of the city in fascinating splen- 
dour. ^' And this," said I to my companion, 
*^ is the last sunset I am ever to witness in 
Japan, for I go forth on the morrow, in all pro- 
bability never to return ; saddening reflection. 
Would that I were ubiquitous.^' Noskotoska 
looked pensive, gloomy, even amid the grandeur 


of surrounding space. There was one conso- 
lation, however, I thought for him, his mind 
would be relieved from any future anxiety as to 
the fate of his horses at my hands ; they would 
not be run to death, as I had just threatened to 
do one of them. But that was not enough to 
comfort him. 

We rode in profound silence for about three 
minutes, at the end of which he amazed me by 
the announcement that he was about to sing. 
And no sooner was it said than done, and a 
beautiful wild warble it was, full as the battle- 
field roar of fighting armies ; yet soft, pathetic, 
and melodious as an Italian love-song. 

His song lasted about four minutes, during 
which time the attendants directed their faces 
to the ground, listening with mingled awe and 
delight to the music of their master's voice. 
He certainly sang well, and that although he 
continued to ride on during the whole time he 
was so engaged. I did not fail to compliment 
him upon his excellent voice and expression. 
He informed me that he could phy upon six- 
teen instruments of music, of the stringed, 
drum, and wind order, and that his wife could 

— 1 


play upon even more. I said that I should es- 
teem it a heaven to hear her before my departure. 
She, answered Noskotoska, would be proud and 
delighted to contribute to my happiness in that 
respect. I felt alive with joy ; a sort of leaping 
gladness, that strongly induced me to go off at 
another canter. But I restrained the impetuosity 
of my feelings, and lavished words of eulogium 
upon the Japanese. We soon left the region 
of temples behind us, and entered the busy 
streets again. Here my companion wished to 
know whether the theatre would be agreeable 
to me. " Certainly," said I, " anything you 

Accordingly, we halted in front of a large 
wooden, well-lighted, gaily-ornamented building, 
and having dismounted, Noskotoska led the way 
through a hall and lobby, and up two flights of 
steps, into a compartment commanding a view 
of a large and handsome theatre, brilliantly 
lighted by hundreds of lamps, rich in colours 
and in gilding, and decorated with vivid waU 
pictures and elaborate carvings in wood and 
ivory. There were more than five hundred 
people present, and several actors were engaged 


in active and ludicrous pantomime on the stage. 
Two scenes were going forward at the same time, 
and, as a consequence, there w^e two sets of 
actors, one set of two conjurors, the other of four, 
and a varying number of comedians. The two first 
performed a sham ceremony of the Hatikari 
imme^tdy after our entrance, and so naturally, 
that^ under circumstances, I should have sup-* 
posed it a tragedy in real life. It brought the 
m(»iiing scene at Simoda once more vividly to 
mind. They died before us, disembowelled, on 
the stage; but, to my astonishment, became 
rapidly transformed as they lay, and rose again 
simultaneously as bears, and a capital repre- 
sentation of Bruin they made. I never wit- 
nessed anything so wonderful and apparently 
unaccountable at the hands of any professing 
wizard before. The drop fell after the bears' 
had danced about for a few seconds, and after* 
the lapse of about a minute, was raised again, 
revealing the same characters in close-fitting 
garments. They had each a sword in their 
sashes, which they dtew and held aloft ; in an- 
other moment tliey ftung them simultaneously 
into the air with a subdued cry resembling tsshe^ 



when, to my increased amazement, tbey were 
arrested in their flight, and remained ; the one 
crossing the otiier like the letter X, suggestive 
of op» soissofB, above their heads. There was 
no sign whatever of the agency by which tbey 
were held there. Eadi man meanwhile eyed his 
sword steadily for a few seconds, when ^e same 
peculiar cry was uttered by them,— the swmtls 
fell at the instant, and eadi caught his own by 
the hilt. Such tricks inspired me with end- 
less wonder and curiosity, I appealed to Nos- 
kotoska ; but no, he could not tell me. It de- 
fied my comprehension to fathom the secret in 
tSie remotest degree, and I am equally ignontnt 
to t^is day. The other performance going for* 
ward was a love-scene, and, in spite of the won** 
d^ul doings of the conjurors, there were more 
eyes directed to it than to them. The evening 
was advancing, and my home lay on the waters, 
so, after a stay of about a quarter of an hcur, 1 
suggested locomotion, which was readily adopted 
by my amiable companion. Om* horses were- 
in waiting, so at once bestriding tfaam^ we rode, 
along the gaily.lighted animated streets to th& 
abode (^ Taxolee. 


Hie shades of evening were fast deepening 
aroundi and the raven wings of advancing night 
were casting their shadow over the earth as we 
dismounted at the porch of Noskotoska's house. 
We entered and proceeded to the upper saloon, 
which was brightly illuminated with many lamps, 
and where the fair Tazolee, two gentlemen, and 
three ladies, dad in black and other dark robes 
of silk, were apparently enjoying themselves over 
books, and cups of tea. All bowed, but remained 
seated, as I entered their presence. Tea and con- 
fectionery were at once served to me. Noskotoska 
took his seat and was served likewise. He sug- 
gested music. England loved song, and England 
would no doubt honour them with his strains 

I was somewhat surprised at this unexpected 
turning of the tables. I had come to hear a Ja- 
panese lady sing, and now my very host wanted me 
to utter (if I could) a few of the woodnotes wild 
he loved so much to hear. Seeing that it was 
expected of me, and that my responding to the 
call would conduce to the general satisfaction, I, 
without loss of time, gave them " Shells of 
Ocean," from memory of course, which appeared 


to gratify them exceedingly. Now the instru- 
ments were brought by one of the attendants in 
gossamer, and laid beside the gentle Tazolee. 
She selected one very much resembling a guitar. 
With graceful expression she awoke the sweetest 
music I had ever heard — sounds iEolian in 
their softness and purity — angel whispers wafted 
from out of fairy land — beautiftd tones that in- 
spired while they cheered, and awoke the holiest, 
the sublimest faculties of the mind — that en- 
thralled, and joyed, and fascinated, and made the 
heart's pulsation quicken with delight. Then rang 
her voice in strains soft and subdued, and in 
perfect unison with her instrument. The whole 
scene and subject inspired while it soothed me, 
till at length I subsided into a tranquil state of 
dreamy pleasure, and surrendered myself to the 
intoxication of the moment. 

The music ceased with the effect of a retiring 
ray of sunlight. I felt ready to kiss the woman 
who sang and played so sweetly, who had afforded 
me a taste of felicity in the midst of such a sea 
of clouds and over such an arid desert as that 
in which my career then lay — it was as another 
oasis in the wildernesss. I loaded her with 



eulogium. Night was advanciDg in her solitary 
flight, and it was high time for me to be on 
board. So with regret I bade adieu to all and for 
ever, and accompanied by two servants of mine 
host, I took my way to the river, and with the 
stars and the moon flickering and beaming 
through the canopy above me, I was borne in 
Noskotoska's gaily gliding barge once more to 
the frigate's side. 



Notwithstanding the circumstance of the ship 
being appointed to sail an hour before noon^ the 
senior surgeon and myself took boat soon after 
breakfast for the landing-steps. We, however, 
constituted the only exceptions to the rule of all 
a-board. I had already informed him of my 
interview with the Dutchman, and as the said 
Dutchman had been to Jeddo, and the doctor 
was " a bom Yankee," and consequently pos- 
sessed of a very enquiring mind and elastic dis- 
position, considerable interest was felt by the 
latter on his behalf, and he guessed he was in 
the humour just to have a good " liquor " and 
right-down talk with the Hollander. 

K 2 


We crossed the bridge, and followed the main 
street half its length, and turning up a lane to 
the left, entered the barn-looking warehouse in 
which I had met the forlorn one on the day 
previous. He was not now to be seen there, 
but a Japanese servant presented himself, who at 
once conducted us up the same staircase to the 
apartments in which he had entertained me on 
the previous day. 

We found him in the act of smoking, and 
engaged in the perusal of a book in his own 
language. I introduced the doctor, who was 
anxious to have the honour of his acquaintance, 
and hoped he would not deem our presence an 
intrusion. The Dutchman bowed politely, and 
ejaculated a brief response. / 

The doctor held out his hand, and said, — 
** Happy to make your acquaintance, sir. — Been 
to Jeddo, I believe ?" 

The Dutchman failed to comprehend his 
English, of which language he had only an im- 
perfect knowledge ; but he extended his hand 
reciprocally, and busied himself in providing for 
our comfort, introducing pipes and tobacco, saki, 
and liqueurs, and begging us to be seated. 


" Can't speak English," said the doctor, turn- 
ing to me, and somewhat surprised at having re- 
ceived no reply to his observation about Je 'do. 

" A little only," said I ; " you could not reason- 
ably expect a man shut up in Japan to be very 
proficient in conversational English." 

" Very good, mister ; you speak like a book- 
Well, then, we'll give him a little Dutch. Wait 
a bit." Upon which he pricked up his ears, and 
addressed the Dutchman thus : — " Parley-voo — 
commy-voo — vully-voo — sivvu-play — ^bon jour." 
I laughed aloud. 

" Oh, confound it, that's French," said he. — 
" Can he talk a la Francaise ?" 

" I'm sure I don't know," I answered, my 
risible organs still in a state of agitation. 

The Dutchman, meanwhile, looked much 
puzzled, but by no means wroth ; he blamed 
himself for his deficiencies as a linguist, and 
much regretted that he was ignorant of the 
French language. And a very happy thing, too, 
as well for himself as the doctor, who, as the 
reader perceives, was by no means gifted in that 
respect. This was the opening scene of our 


The good old Dutchman placed glasses before 
us, and bade us help ourselves to saki and the 
gin of the native juniper. " My respects, mister," 
said the doctor, reaching over to chime glasses, 
and giving his peculiar nod to the Hollander. 

The Dutchman evidently did not comprehend 
the meaning of the doctor's presentation of the 
glass. He imagined that it was intended for 
him to drink first out of it ; so, accordingly, he 
took hold of it in a quiet, point-blank matter-of- 
fact manner, to the surprize of the other party, 
and drank ; after which he handed it back, with 
a diminution in the liquor which it contained, of 
about one-half. 

" He's a know-nothing," muttered the doctor, 
as he re-took the tumbler from the hand of the 
Dutchman. ^' He wants to be rowed up Salt 

" Slick's the word ;" and down the doctor's 
throat at that moment went what he afterwards 
called the balance. 

" Now just ask him to tell us what he's seen," 
said the doctor, addressing myself while I was 
in the act of doipg the same thing with regard 
to the Dutchman. 


I did not heed him for a moment, upon 
which I felt a pull at my coat-tail. 

" Look here — eh Mister — just ask him where 
he's been/* 

" All right, doctor/* said I, turning round to 
him; for I had been leaning in an opposite 

" Yees, and just let us hear what he's got to 

"Why?" I observed. "You'd be none the 
wiser if he told you." 

"Shouldn't I — guess I should — ^guess you 
would if I wouldn't; and that's just as good 
—eh ?" 

Here he uttered a sort of half-chuckle, which 
was equivalent to saying, I guess Fm right — eh? 

I continued my conversation with the Hol- 

" Well, what does he say — anything clear ?" 

" Yes," said I, " something very mteresting to 
you. He says that when he was ill on one 
occasion, the Japanese doctors stabbed him with 
fine gold needles on nine fleshy parts of his 
body. Are you familiar with the science of acu- 
puncture ?" 


" Why," he replied, " in my 'stimation punc- 
ture's a very bad science, specially when its 
experimentalized on the quick of the finger — 
sharp work, I guess — well, then, ask him how 
he liked iC 

" Oh, it cured him," said I. 

"Cured him; — well, he doesn't look quite 
the bacon, if he*s cured. Well, anything else 
they did to him ?" 

I may here mention that acupuncture is a 
very common form of surgery with the Japanese. 
The needles employed are nearly as fine as a 
hair, and either of gold, silver, or steel. In 
using them, the bony parts, nerves, and blood- 
vessels are carefully avoided; and, while they 
are being pressed through the skin and muscles, 
they are twirled about in a peculiar manner. 

Burning with the moxa is a still more favourite 
and universal remedy. This material is the 
fiper woolly part of the young leaves of the 
wormwood (Artemesia). It is procured by rub- 
bing and beating the leaves till the green part 
separates, and nothing remains but the wool. 
When applied, it is made up in little cones, 


which, after being placed on the part selected 
for the operation, are set fire to from the top, 
when it bums down slowly, leaving a blister on 
the skin, which subsequently breaks. 

Another great remedy with the Japanese is 
friction. Internal remedies are generally in the 
form of simple decoctions^ diuretic or sudorific ; 
and in these the Japanese Pharmacopoeia is rich, 
and well adapted to the diseases of the country, 
which, however, are singularly few. The doctor 
renewed his inquiries. 

" What's he saying ?" he asked. 

"Why, that he has been in the habit of 
using paper pocket-handkerchiefs for the last 
two years," 

The doctor laughed, and wanted proof of 
such, or, at least, a specimen to be sub- 

Accordingly, I conveyed his desire to the 
Dutchman, who at once trudged off to an inner 
room, and came forth with one. 

It was about the size of a ladies' cambric, 
stamped with coloured flowers, and softer and 
more silky than the finest European tissue paper, 



but much stronger. It is the custom to burn 
these, instead of to wash them, when soiled. 
They are very cheap, so that this destruction is 
by no means a costly habit. 

Again the Hollander and I were in con- 

"Tall talking — ^he's got some jaw-crackers 
there," remarked the doctor, in a confidential 

" Yes," I observed, " he is informing me of 
the difficulty he experienced in acquiring even 
that slight knowledge which he possesses of 
the principles and grammar of the Japanese 

* Four grammars of the Japanese language have been 
published by missionaries, namely, that of Alvarez in 
Latin and Japanese (De Institutume GrammaticaUbriiiLf 
cum versione Japonia), printed at Amacusa in 1593 ; that 
of Rodriguez in Portuguese (Arte du Lingua de Japan\ 
printed at Nagasaki in 1604 ; that of Collado in Latin 
(Ars Grammatica Japonica lingua)^ printed at Rome in 
1632 ; and that of Oyongusen in Spanish {Arte du la 
Lingua Japonica), printed at Mexico in 1738. Each of 
these grammars represent the sounds in Roman letters, 
and attempt to apply grammatical ideas and forms de- 
rived from the Greek and Latin to a language of a totally 


"Ah! couldn't swallow the dose, I guess — 
looks as if he didn't." 

different stracture; thus complicating and obscuring a 
subject already difficult of analysis. These books are 
now very rare. Rodriguez prepared at Macao^ in 1620, 
an abridgment of his grammar, which, nevertheless, 
remained in manuscript till 1825, when, with some 
omissions, it was printed by the Asiatic Society at Paris, 
in a French version, with an introduction by M. Remusat, 
the celebrated Chinese scholar, to which in the year fol- 
lowing was added a supplement by Baron Humboldt. 

Siebold has also published in Latin, in the Transactions 
of the Dutch Academy at Batavia in 1826, an epitome of 
the Japanese language (Epitome Lingua Japonica), and, 
more recently, an introduction to the study of Japanese 
books (Isagoge in Bibliothecum Japonicum et Studium Li- 
brarum Japonicum). A dictionary in Latin Portuguese, 
and Japanese, a thick quarto of 980 pages, was printed 
at Amacusa in 1595 ; a vocabulary in Japanese and 
Portuguese was printed at Nagasaki in 1606 ; another 
in Spanish and Japanese (Vocabulario de Jupon), was 
published at Manilla in 1630; CoUados Thetaurus, a 
small Latin-Japanese vocabulary, was printed at Rome 
in 1 632, and Medhurst*s English and Japanese vocabulary 
(8vo. pp. 344), at Batavia in 1830 ; the latter contains 
about seven thousand Jiipanese words compiled from 
Chinese and Japanese, and Japanese and Dutch dic- 
tionaries printed and published at Nagasaki. Besides 
these, there is a Thesaurus by Siebold, which, however, 


The Dutchman subsequently showed us some 
native drawings of richly-dressed ladies^ which 
he informed us a Japanese, sympathizing with 
his wifeless condition, had given to him, in the 
hope that looking at them in his hours of lone- 
liness might be a source of consolation, and 
this was the nearest approach to ladies' society 
which it was the lot of the Hollander to enjoy. 
The doctor relished this, and distinguished the 
occasion, as well as expressed his gratification, 
by a prodigious jet which he shot from between 
his teeth, and which splashed among the red 
cinders so as to almost extinguish the poor 
Dutchman's small fire. 

It was now half-past ten, so we reluctantly 
took our leave, and shaking the old Hollander 
warmly by the hand, we bade him adieu, and 
repaired to the landing steps, where our boat 
had remained in waiting for us. 

is a mere transcript of a Chinese-Japanese work ; it 
contains a little more than twenty thousand words, with 
explanations, chiefly m Chinese, and an arrangement 
which renders it as a dictionary almost useless. A dic- 
tionary recently printed by Pfizmarez at Vienna, is, how- 
ever, for usefulness and completeness, entitled to take 
precedence of anything of the kind hitherto written. 


When nearing the frigate, I saw Nosko- 
toska's barge cruising about; and by the 
time our boat had reached the ship's side, 
the gay craft was approaching within hail. 
I stepped into it when it reached the • stage, 
and greeted its respected owner. He had 
brought me some presents in return for those 
I had made to the fair Tazolee and to him- 
self. It consisted of two beautifully lacquered 
boxes, of indescribably irregular and indented 
shape, the one having Fusiyama on its lid and 
flowers on its sides ; the other, the figure of a 
bird on the wing with a landscape beneath, and 
dragons' heads at the sides, and containing to- 
gether a small mirror of a polished white amal- 
gamated metal, four fine lacquer tea-cups, two 
ivory chopsticks, a silk fan, and four small images 
in lacquered wood, representing performers at a 
masquerade in their several characters and cos- 
tumes. A shake of the hand and a series of 
low bows ensued, and I stepped again on to the 
ladder. The sculls of the barge were put in 
play, I waved my hand in token of farewell ; the 
graceful craft sped onward to the shore, and 
Noskotoska and I had parted for ever. 


In less than half an hour after this, Nagasaki 
was fa&t receding from my gaze ; a little later, 
and the sunlit hills and emerald islets of its 
beautiful bay were alone visible, and before night 
the sky was a mighty vault, unpierced by a 
single pencilling of land. 








Weeks elapsed before, emerging from the open 
Pacific, we entered the bay of Nookoora, on 
the island of that name, belonging to the group 
called Washington. This we did after sailing 
some miles along the shore, catching, as we 
proceeded, refreshing glimpses of blooming val- 
leys, deep glens, waterfalls, and waving groves, 
hidden here and there by projecting and rocky 
headlands, every moment opening to the view 
some new and startling scene of beauty. 

Those who for the first time visit these 


waters are usually surprised at the appearance 
of the islands. They have likely pictured to 
themselves enamelled and sofUy-swelling plains, 
shaded by delicious groves, watered by pur- 
ling brooks, and the entire country but little 
elevated above the surrounding ocean. But the 
reality is far different : bold rock-bound coasts, 
with the surf beating high against defiant 
cliffs, and broken here and there into deep 
islets, which offer to the view thickly-wooded 
valleys separated by the spurs of mountains 
dothL wiS, tufted U. »d »w«pbg down 
towards the sea from an elevated and furrowed 
interior, most prominently characterise the island 

The bay was clasped by an amphitheatre of 
hills, all green with verdure, all beautiful and 
picturesque. As we slowly advanced, nume- 
rous canoes pushed off from the surrounding 
shores, and we were soon in the midst of a 
flotilla of them, their aboriginal occupants 
contending together as to which should board 
us first. Now and then the projecting out- 
riggers of their slight shallops running foul of 
one another, would become entangled below the 


surface, so as to threaten a capsize, when a scene, 
made up of passionate gesticulation and fierce 
outcries, would ensue, producing a confusion too 
great for description. 

Scattered over the water among the canoes 
I observed dozens of cocoa nuts floating closely 
together in circular groups, and bobbing up and 
down with the rise and fall of every wave. By 
some means, to me inexplicable, all these cocoa 
nuts were steadily approaching the ship. As I 
leaned in curiosity over the side in the en- 
deavour to solve their mysterious movements, 
one mass, far in advance of the rest, attracted 
my attention. In its centre was something I 
could take for nothing else, than a cocoa nut, 
but which I certainly esteemed to be one of the 
most prodigious specimens of the fruit I had 
ever seen. It kept whirling and dancing about 
among the rest in the most singular manner ; and 
as it drew nearer, I thought it bore a remark* 
able resemblance to the brown shaven skull of 
one of the natives. Very soon it betrayed a 
pair of eyes, and I suddenly became aware that 
what I had supposed to be the nut of a tree, 
was nothing less than that of an individual and 


a man, who, as the owner of these cocoa nuts, 
had adopted this, the customary method, of 
bringing them to market. They were all strung 
together by strips of the husk partly torn from 
the shell of each, and rudely fastened. The 
proprietor, with his head thus inserted in their 
midst, impelled his floating necklace through 
the water by striking out with his feet beneath 
the surface. 

I was somewhat surprised to find that no 
females made their appearance, but I was ignorant, 
for the moment, of the fact that, by the operation 
of the native laws, the use of canoes in all parts 
of the island was strictly prohibited to the gentler 
sex ; consequently, whenever a Nookoora lady felt 
disposed to journey by water, she had no other 
resource than to put in requisition the paddles al- 
lotted her by nature. We had approached within 
about two miles of the head of the bay, when 
some of the islanders, who by this time had 
succeeded in scrambling aboard at the risk of 
swamping their canoes, directed attention to a 
singular commotion in the water, nearly half-a- 
mile a-head. At first it looked as if a shoal of 
fish were sporting on the surface ; but very soon 


we were convinced of the approach of a swarm 
of native damsels. Every moment we drew 
nearer, and their existence became more pal- 
pable, their forms rising and falling with the 
waves, with the right arm uplifted above the 
water, bearing the girdle of tappUy and their 
long dark hair trailing beside them as they 
swam — and suggesting the idea of their being 
mermaids rather than women. 

We were still nearly a mile from the beach, 
and under slow steam, when we sailed right into 
the midst of these swimming nymphs, and they 
boarded us at every quarter, dripping with the 
brine and glowing from the bath, their jet black 
tresses streaming over their shoulders, and half 
enveloping their otherwise naked forms. There 
they hung, sparkling with savage vivacity, laugh- 
ing gaily at one another, and chattering away 
with enviable glee. Nor were they idle in the 
meantime ; for each performed the simple offices 
of the toilet for the other. Their luxuriant 
locks, wound up and twisted into the smallest 
possible compass, were freed from the salt ele- 
ment, and the whole person carefully dried; 
and from a small circular shell that was passed 


from hand to hand, anointed with a fragrant oil. 
Their adornments were completed by passing the 
girdle — a few loose folds of white tappa — in a 
modest cincture round the body. Thus arrayed, 
they no longer hesitated, but flung themselves 
lightly over the bulwarks, and were quickly 
frolicking about the decks. 

Their appearance was a matter of astonish- 
ment. Their extreme youth, the light dear 
brown of their complexion, their delicate features^ 
and inexpressibly graceful figures, their softly 
moulded limbs, and free, unstudied action, seemed 
as strange as beautiful. 

They were all very properly put under guard 
while on board, our commander not liking to 
turn them into the water again ; and, as soon 
as we anchored, they were sent on shore, some 
in boats, the rest swimming. 

The bay of Nookoora is about ten miles in 
circumference, and of a horse-shoe form. The 
entrance is narrow, and flanked by two small 
twin islets, which rise conically some five hun- 
dred feet above the surface ; from these the 
shore recedes on either hand, describing a deep 
semi-circle. From the verge of the water the 


land rises uniformly on all sides with green and 
sloping acclivities, until, from gently rolling hill 
sides, and moderate elevations, it insensibly 
swells into lofty and majestic heights, whose 
blue outlines range far around them in the 

The beautiful aspect of the shore is heightened 
by deep and romantic glens, which come down 
to it at almost equal distances, all apparently 
radiating from a common centre, and the upper 
extremities of which are lost to the eye beneath 
the shadow of the mountains. Down each of 
these valleys flows a clear stream, here and 
there assuming the form of a slender cascade, 
then stealing invisibly along until it sparkles 
again upon the sight in larger and more noisy 
waterfalls, and at last in silence wanders to the 

The houses of the natives are scattered ir- 
regularly over these valleys, and invariably 
beneath the shadow of cocoa-nut trees; they 
are constructed of yellow bamboo, carefully 
twisted together, and forming a kind of wicker- 
work, the roof being a thatching of the long 
tapering leaves of the palmetto. The scenery 



of the bay is at once imposing and magnificent ; 
viewed from the deck as we lay anchored in the 
centre of the harbour, it had the appearance of 
a vast natural amphitheatre in decay, and over- 
grown with vines, the deep glens that furrowed 
its sides appearing like enormous fissures 
caused by the ravages of time. '' Enchanting 
prospect !" were the words to which I first gave 
utterance on surveying it. Yet here has the white 
man already made sore havoc, what calamity and 
destruction has his presence on these inviting 
shores not engendered. Alas ! Aboriginalism, 
what a debt does civilisation owe to thee — a 
debt never to be repaid, but only to be added 
to still more. 

About an hour after our anchoring, a hand- 
some barge, gay with streamers, came along- 
side. It was the royal craft, and its chief oc- 
cupants were King Rowanna and his bride. 
The yards were manned, and a salute fired in 
their honour. They ascended the accommoda- 
tion ladder, and were met by the Commander, 
as they passed along the quarter-deck; the 
marine guard presented arms, while the band 
struck up to the tune of the Cannibal Islands. 


Their appearance was unique — a mixture of 
the primitive and present. He was arrayed 
in the usual uniform, of tattoo partly con- 
cealed by a railway rug, while his shaven 
crown was concealed by a huge cap of native 
cloth waving with ostrich plumes. A broad 
patch of tattooing extended entirely across 
his face in a line with his eyes. His Queen 
was habited in a gaudy tissue of scarlet cloth, 
trimmed with yellow silk, which, descending a 
little below the knees, exposed to view her bare 
legs, embellished with spiral tattooing. Upon 
her head was a fanciful turban of purple velvet* 
figured with silver sprigs, and surmounted by a 
tuft of variegated feathers. She manifested a 
disposition to rove about the decks, when, from 
among the ship's company who were assembled 
to see her, she soon singled one whose arms and 
feet and exposed breast were covered with as 
many inscriptions in Indian ink as the lid of 
an Egyptian sarcophagus, and by virtue of 
which he seemed to have at once gained her 
special favour. She rolled up the leg of his 
wide trousers to examine the strange devices, 
and it was not until the gentleman salt abruptly 



tore himself away from her^ that she conduded 
the examination. They did not linger long on 
board, for it was near sunset when they came, 
and they took their departure apparently well 
pleased with the refreshments we had offered 
them, as well as the reception they had met 

Early on the following morning, I joined 
a small party of two on an explorative tour 
over the north side of the island. After a good 
deal of scrambling through cane brake, and a 
somewhat arduous and dangerous ascent, we 
found ourselves, an hour before noon, standing 
on the top of what appeared to be the highest 
point on the island, such being an immense 
overhanging cliff, composed of basaltic rocks, 
hung round with parasitical plants. We were 
here about three thousand feet above the level 
of the sea, and the scenery, viewed from this 
elevation, was magnificent. The lovely bay of 
Nookoora, dotted here and there with canoes, 
reposed at the base of a circular range of hills, 
whose verdant sides, perforated with dells and 
gashed with indentations^ formed a prospect as 
lovely as it was diversified. 


"Let's liquor," said the sailing master ; so 
we sat down beneath the pleasant shade of 
trees, and " liquored," and spread our banquet 
on the mossy but luxuriant turf, and lunched. 

On the other side of the elevation, as far as 
the eye could carry, not a sign of human life 
was to be seen. The entire landscape seemed 
one unbroken solitude. Nevertheless we were 
quickly again a-foot and resumed our journey. 
As we advanced through this wilderness, our 
voices sounded strangely in our ears, as though 
human accents had never before disturbed the 
oppressive silence which prevailed, interrupted 
only by the low murmurings of here and there 
a waterfall. We continued on our way for about 
half a mile, when we came to an indistinctly 
traced footpath, leading through the grass, and 
which appeared to lead along the top of the 
ridge and to descend with it into a deep ravine 
visible beyond. Our curiosity to see whither 
this path might lead prompted us to pursue it. 
So on we went, the track gradually becoming 
more visible as we advanced, until it abruptly 
terminated on the verge of a ravine. The roar 
of waterfalls below rose tremulously into the 



upper air. The scene was as animated as it 
was impressive. Five foaming streams, rushing 
through as many gorges, and swollen and turbid, 
owing to recent rains, united together in one 
wild plunge of nearly eighty feet, and fell with 
voice-like uproar into a deep, black pool, scooped 
out of the gloomy-looking rocks, that lay piled 
around, and thence, in one collected body, dashed 
down a narrow, sloping channel, which seemed 
to penetrate far into darkness and the earth. 
Overhead huge roots of trees hung from the 
sides of the ravine, dripping with moisture, and 
trembling with vibrations produced by the fall. 
To descend this was impossible ; and we con- 
cluded the foot-path had been formed by such 
stray lovers of the picturesque as had wandered 
to behold, but to retrace again their footsteps. 

Treading our way back for a short distance, 
we diverged to the left, and soon were cheered 
by as beautiful a view as I had ever gazed upon. 
We looked straight down into the bosom of a 
distant valley, which swept away in long wavy 
undulations to the blue waters of the Pacific. 
Midway, and peering here and there, amidst the 
foliage^ were to be seen the palmetto-thatched 


houses of the natives glistening in the sunlight, 
by which they had already been bleached to a 
dazzling whiteness. The vale was about four 
miles in length, by a breadth of a mile at its 
greatest width. On either side it was hemmed 
in by steeps and green declivities, which uniting 
near the spot where we stood, formed an abrupt 
and semicircular termination of grassy difts 
and precipices hundreds of feet in height, over 
which leaped many a brightly glistening cas- 
cade. But the crowning beauty of the prospect 
was its universal verdure. Far and wide the 
prospect was covered with sunlit foliage. 
Over the entire landscape there reigned the 
most hushed repose; even the cascades, silent 
in the distance, seemed to rest like silver 
threads upon the mighty picture. All was 
holiness and light. But between this valley and 
us, several rugged ridges intervened, separated 
by deep chasms. 

We drew nearer to the brink ; an invit- 
ing stream lay in a deU beneath ; we were 
thirsty, we would descend ; our line of route 
lay in that direction, and a considerable dis- 
tance would be saved by crossing the ridges 


at this point. With a heedless courage from 
which prudence would have shrunk, we threw 
ourselves down the depths of the ravine, star- 
tling its primeval solitudes with the echoes pro* 
duced by the falling fragments of rock which 
we every moment dislodged, apparently careless 
of the insecurity of our footing, and reckless 
whether the slight roots and twigs we clutched 
at sustained us for the while, or treacherously 
yielded to our grasp. 

After a few minutes of peril we reached the 
foot of the gorge, and kneeling upon a small 
ledge of dripping rock, we bent over one by 
one, and dipped our general drinking glass 
into the stream. We found the water of an icy 
temperature, which, combined with the shade 
into which we had plunged, contributed very 
much to cool us, whilst the sight of the dank 
rocks, oozing forth moisture at every crevice, 
and the dark stream shooting along its here dis- 
mal channels, tended to make the contrast be- 
tween the hill and the dell still more striking. 
Crossing the latter, we reached, after an hour's 
hard climbing, the summit of an uneven ridge ; 
this we descended, and then followed the bed of a 






watercourse, choked here and th 
ments of broken rocks that had falla 
these oflfered in themselves many\y 
to the course of the rapid stream \^ ^n vexed 
and fretted about them, forming at intervals 
small waterfalls pouring over into deep basins, 
or splashing wildly upon heaps of stones. From 
the narrowness of the , gorge and the steepness 
of its sides, there was no mode of advancing but 
by wading through the water, which resulted in 
our stumbling every moment over the impedi- 
ments that lay hidden beneath its surface, or 
our tripping against the huge roots of trees. 

The most annoying hindrance, however, which 
we encountered was from a multitude of crooked 
boughs, which, shooting out almost horizontally 
from the sides of the chasm, twisted themselves 
together in fantastic masses, almost to the sur- 
face of the stream, affording us no passage save 
under the low arches which they formed. Under 
these we were obliged to crawl on our hands 
and feet, sliding along the oozing surface of the 
rocks, or slipping into the deep pools. 

Now and again the head of some one of us 
would come in unpleasant concussion against 


the limb of a projecting tree, the prevailing light 
being somewhat le^en, and while imprudently 
engaged in rubbing the injured part, would fall 
sprawling amongst flinty fragments, which sel* 
dom failed in the work of bruising, whilst the 
unpitying waters flowed heedlessly over the 
prostrate individual. 

Our progress was necessarily slow, nevertheless 
we reached by two o'clock a rocky precipice, 
nearly a hundred feet in depth, that extended 
entirelv across the channel, and over which the 
stream wildly flung itself in one unbroken leap, 
while on either hand the walls of the ravine 
presented their overhanging sides both above 
and below the fall, afi^ording no means whatever 
of avoiding it by describing a circle. 

We approached the verge of the cataract, 
and looking down we observed growing along 
the side of the ravine a number of round 
gutta-percha-looking roots, some three or 
four inches in thickness, and several feet long, 
which, after twisting among the fissures of the 
rock, shot perpendicularly from it, and ran 
tapering to a point in the air, hanging over the 
gulf like so many dark icicles. They covered 



nearly the entire surface of one side of the 
gorge, the lowest of them reaching to the water. 
Many were moss-grown and decayed, with their 
extremities evidently snapped short off, while 
those in the immediate vicinity of the fall, looked 
slippery with moisture. We now began to de- 
liberate as to the propriety of descending by the 
aid of these treacherous-looking appendages. 
We were each ripe for adventure, and danger 
was rather courted than otherwise, as being the 
source of a little pleasant excitement. 

Without uttering a word, therefore, I crawled 
along the dripping ledge until I gained a point 
from which I could just reach one of the largest 
of the pendant roots ; I shook it — it quivered 
in my grasp, and when let go it twanged in the 
air like a strong wire sharply struck. Thus 
impressed with its sufficient strength, I swung 
myself nimbly upon it, and twisting my legs 
round it in sailor fashion, slipped down nine or 
ten feet, when its motion became lij^e that of a 

I did not like venturing further on the 
strength of this now slightly tapering root, so 
holding on by one hand, with the other I 

L 3 


tested the strength of all those around me by 
taking hold of and shaking them. After the 
lapse of a few moments, I transferred myself to 
one of these, and continued my descent. Casting 
a glance forward as I swung, I had the unwel- 
come sight of one of my companions swinging 
also, and that directly over my head. Woe to 
me, I thought, if he breaks loose, we shall go 
to the bottom in company. I endeavoured to 
get out of the way by ckitching roots dangling 
more to the right. While in the act of so 
doing, I was startled by the downfall of a root, 
which struck me like an eel across the head and 
shoulders, and went toppling down, followed by 
another almost at the same instant. I looked 
upward to observe whether the sailing-master 
was following suit, and to my gratification found 
that he was still aloft, but clinging like a swal- 
low to the slimy rocks, apparently in the midst 
of a desperate difficulty. The next root that I 
took hold of to test, fell in a similar manner ; it 
became evident that only a few of the roots, and 
those of the largest kind, would bear a man's 
weight without yielding. I was now suspended 
over the yawning chasm, swinging to and fro 


with the motion of the tendril which supported 
me. Once — twice I made a violent eflfort to 
clutch the only large root near me, but in vain 
— I could not reach it. At length, desperate 
and impatient, I struck my foot against the 
side of the rock, and by the impetus thus given 
to the motion of my body, I was swung to 
within reach of the desired rope, when at the 
instant of approach I grasped it with my un- 
occupied hand, and letting go the other tendril, 
I transferred myself to it in utter uncertainty as 
to whether it would break off or still retain its 
hold on the rock. It^ vibrated violently under 
the sudden weight, but luckily did not give way. 
I felt a thrill of gratefid joy at my deliverance, 
but the next moment I felt a dizziness steal 
over me, and I involuntarily closed my eyes to 
shut out the view of the depths below. 

From this, however, the way was comparatively 
safe and easy, the roots being in greater abund- 
ance, while here and there points of the rock 
jutted out and greatly assisted in the descent, 
which was soon gained, the sailing-master reach- 
ing the bottom a few moments only after myself. 
We looked upward, and beheld our companion, 


the third lieutenant^ looking down upon us from 
the summit of the precipice. We motioned him 
to follow, to which he shouted a reply which we 
faUed to hear, but from his non-compliance we 
supposed it to have been expressive of his dis- 
inclination to run the risk of the descent. We 
therefore continued our course along the bed of 
the ravine without him. 

After half an hour's quick but painful pro- 
gress, we reached the verge of another fall, still 
loftier than the preceding one, and flanked both 
above and below with the same steep masses of 
rock, presenting, however, here and there narrow 
irregular ledges supporting a shallow soil, on 
which grew a variety of bushes and trees, the 
vivid green of whose foliage contrasted beauti- 
fully with the foaming waters that glowed be- 
tween them. I descended to reconnoitre, and 
found that the shelves of rock on our right 
would enable us to gain, with trifling risk, the 
bottom of the cataract. Accordingly, leaving 
the bed of the stream at the very point where 
it thundered down, we began crawling along 
one of these sloping ledges, until it carried us 
to within a few feet of another that . inclined 


downward at a still sharper angle, and upon 
which, by assisting each other, we succeeded in 
safely alighting. We now crept warily along 
this, steadying ourselves by clutching the naked 
roots of the shrubs that clung to every fissure. 
As we proceeded, the narrow path became stifl 
more contracted, rendering it a matter of great 
difficulty for us to maintain our footing, untU 
suddenly, as we reached an angle of the wall of 
rock where we had expected it to widen, we 
perceived, to our consternation, that a few yards 
further on it abruptly terminated at a place we 
could not possibly hope to pass. 

On this occasion my companion led the way. 
"We can do it," said he; and at the same 
moment he slipped sideways off the rock, and 
fell — to where I knew not. I, however, heard 
a crashing of branches, and looking over, per- 
ceived that he had alighted in the centre of the 
spreading foliage of a spedes of palm-tree that, 
shooting its hardy roots along a ledge below, 
curved its trunk upwards into the air, and pre- 
sented a compact crown about twenty feet be- 
low the ledge upon which I stood. Involuntarily 
I held my breath, in momentary expectation of 


seeing the body of my companion sink through 


the frail support of the branches, and fall head*- 
long to the bottom. To my joyful surprise, 
however, he recovered himself, and disentangling 
his limbs from the fractured boughs, he peered 
out from his leafy resting-place, and shouted, 
'' Come along !" And almost simultaneously 
with this he ducked beneath the foliage, and 
slipping down the trunk, presented himself a 
moment afterwards at least fifty feet below me, 
and upon the broad shelf of rock from which 
sprung the tree he had descended. It was a 
daring act, and I was beginning to question the 
desirability of following the example, when 
closing my eyes, I inclined myself over towards 
the abyss, and after one breathless instant fell 
with a crash into the tree, the branches snap- 
ping and crackling with my weight as I sank 
lower and lower among them, until I was 
stopped by coming in contact with a sturdy limb. 
In a few moments I was standing at the foot of 
the tree, manipulating myself all over, with a view 
to ascertain the extent of the injuries I had 
received. To my surprise, the only effects of my 
feat were a few very slight contusions. 



The remaining descent was easily accom- 
plished, and we were again in a ravine. We 
now sat down on. a fragment of rock, and ap- 
plied ourselves to the brandy flask and the con- 
sumption of a sandwich, feeling at the same 
time as hot as we were for the time exhausted. 

We quickly resumed our dismal and still dif- 
ficult path, in the hope of soon catching a 
glimpse of the valley before us. Our object 
was to cross the latter, and so make a short cut 
back to the shores of the bay from which we 
had started. 

Towards sunset the voice of a cataract, which 
had for some time sounded like a low, deep 
bass, to the music of the smaller waterfalls, 
broke upon our ears in still louder tones, and 
assured us that we were approaching its vicinity. 
In half an hour afterwards, during which time 
we had made rapid progress over the rocks and 
shallows, we stood on the brink of another 
precipice, over which the dark stream bounded 
in one final leap of full three hundred feet. 
The sheer descent terminated in the valley of 
our hopes. On either side of the fall, two lofty 



and perpendicular bluffs buttressed the sides of 
the enormous cliff*, and projected into the sea of 
verdure with which the valley waved, and a 
range of similar projecting eminences stood 
disposed in a horseshoe form about the head of 
the vale. A thick canopy of trees hung over 
the very verge of the fall, leaving an arched 
aperture for the passage of the waters, which 
imparted a strange picturesqueness to the scene. 

There lay the valley spread out before us, but 
instead of our being conducted into its inviting 
embrace by the gradual descent of the steep 
water-course which we had thus far pursued, it 
came to an abrupt termination, which appeared 
to be utterly impassable. Vainly we searched 
for a gap down which we might slide, or for a 
single available spot that promised anything 
short of certain death to us. To retrace our 
steps was of course a thing impossible ; no 
human being could have scaled those rocky 
heights which we had descended. 

The rainbow hues of sunset were now flashing 
athwart the beautiful prospect beneath us — how 
grand, how beautiful, how sublime ; and yet, in 
the midst of all this beauty and magniiicence. 


we were desolate, we were without food, without 
a sheltering roof, or a prospect of deliverance. 
Since one memorable night passed in Australia, 
when I had lost myself in the " Bush," I never 
felt so lonely, or was filled with so much dis- 
appointment as at the pensive hour of twilight 
on this, the eventual day of my toilsome ad- 
venture on Nookoora. 

A small table rock which projected over the 
precipice on one side of the stream, and was 
drenched by the spray of the fall, sustained the 
trunk of a large tree, which in all probability 
had been deposited there by some heavy freshet. 
It lay obliquely with one end resting on the 
rock, and the other supported by the side of the 
ravine. Against it we placed in a sloping di- 
rection a number of the half-decayed boughs 
that were strewn about, and covering the whole 
with branches and leaves, we crept under its 
shelter. And this, reader, was our bed. 

During the whole of the night the continual 
roaring of the cataract, the dismal moaning of 
the wind through the trees, and the pattering 
of continual rain, which commenced falling soon 


after sunset, united in one melancholy dirges- 
while the profound darkness — moonless, starless 
— tended but to intensify the gloominess of our 
position, as there, encased in our saturated 
clothes, we awaited the break of another day. 



Morning at length dawned, but teaden, and 
wet, and gloomy, and offering but a cheerless 
prospect to beings so forlorn as oursdves. We 
rose from our miserable pallet, and stretched our 
stiffened joints, and after taking a draught of 
the running water, we looked about us with 
the determination of men desperate. Descend 
that abyss we must, it was our only resource. 
Resolute and hungry, we commenced the perilous 
undertaking, with the torrent hissing in our 
ears, as though invoking our destruction. 
Downward, still down we swung, and leapt 
from crag to crag, and tendril to tendril— <iown 


into the black depths of the abyss. Even the 
recollection of the momentary, the frightful 
danger to which I was then exposed thrills me 
to the heart. Many a hair-breadth escape had 
we before reaching the bosom of the valley j 
but reach it we did, although not without la- 
cerated hands and shaken bodies. I would 
fain describe the descent, but my pen would fail 
in the endeavour ; and as I have already dwelt 
long upon previous perils of the kind, the reader 
will readily realize the position, when I say it 
was an exaggeration of the previous scene of 
the precipice — it was terrific. 

The part of the valley in which we now 
found ourselves appeared to be altogether un- 
inhabited. An almost impenetrable thicket 
extended from side to side, without presenting 
a single plant affording the nourishment we had 
looked forward to. We followed the course of 
the stream for nearly a mile, and were sur- 
prised at still meeting with the same impervious 
thickets, but no sign of a path, or yet anything 
indicative of the vicinity of islanders. At length 
we paused in front of a narrow opening in the 
foliage. We at once struck into it, and it soon 


brought us by an indistinctly traced path to a 
comparatively clear space. Here the path faded, 
and lost itself in the open ground. We there- 
fore entered a grove which lay at our right, 
and had only advanced about a hundred yards, 
when we saw, lying on the ground^ a smaU 
bundle of the green shoots of the bread-fruit 
tree, bound with a strip of bark. Almost at 
the same moment, I caught a glimpse of two 
figures, partly hidden by the foliage. I advanced. 
They were a boy and a girl, slender, and grace- 
ful, and naked, save so far as a slight girdle of the 
cloth of bark was concerned, and from which de- 
pended, at opposite points, two of the russet leaves 
of the bread-fruit tree. One arm of the boy 
was thrown about the neck of the girl, while with 
the other he clasped one of her hands in his 
own. Thus stood they together, their heads 
inclined forward, and with one foot in advance, 
as if half inclined to fiy from our presence. 
Their alarm perceptibly increased as we drew 
nearer. I halted, and drawing forth my pencil- 
case, as a gift, beckoned them to approach ; but 
they still held back timorously. I then ejaculated 
a few imitations of the sounds I had heard uttered 


by the natives who had boarded us, which. I 
intended to have the effect of calming their 
troubled souls — at the same time I slowly ad- 
vanced towards them, and made signs of friend* 
ship. After retreating a few feet, they stood 
still, and permitted me to approach ; my com- 
panion, at my suggestion, followed me at a few 
yards' distance. I had great difficulty in assuring 
them of our peaceful intentions, and I thought 
fit to divest myself of my necktie, and present it 
to the young lady, in furtherance of that end. 
I signified that I was hungry, and would ex- 
perience much satisfaction in being allowed to 
partake of a few shoots of their bread-fruit, 
which they accordingly allowed me to take. I 
then led them to understand that we (pointing 
to my companion) should be glad to go home 
with them. To this, their confidence being by 
this time somewhat restored, they consented, by 
timidly leading the way. They, however, turned 
round from time to time with a half-scared look, 
to observe us as we followed. Not a word had 
they uttered in our presence, until, suddenly, 
they now set up a strange halloo, which was 
answered from beyond the grove through which 


we were passing ; and the next moment we en- 
tered upon some open ground, at the extremity 
of which we descried a long, low hut ; and in 
front of it were several young girls. At the 
instant of their seeing us, they fled with wild 
screams into the adjoining thickets, like so many 
startled fawns. 

A few moments afterwards, the whole valley 
was resounding with savage outcries; and the 
natives came rushing down upon us like a whirl- 
wind from every direction, and evidently in a 
state of the wildest excitement. We were soon 
surrounded by a dense throng, whose flashing 
eyes and looks of curiosity, together with their 
tattooed forms, and the landscape on which 
we stood, formed a splendid picture, which tor 
aboriginal efiect outvied even that of an Australian 

* The Corrobbori always takes place at night by the 
light of blazing faggots, and to time beaten on stretched 
skins, accompanied with singing. The dancers paint 
their bodies in a vivid manner with red> blue, and white 
clay, and in such varied ways that no two individuals are 
alike. Darkness is essential to the effect of the whole ; 
and, as the painted figures come forward in mystic 
order from the obscurity of the background, while the 
singers and beaters of time are invisible, they have a 


Our youthful guides, with amazing volubility, 
appeared to be detailing the circumstances con- 
nected with our meeting. The whole audience 
every moment appeared to grow more and more 

highly theatrical effect. The dance is progressive, the 
first movement being slow, and introduced by two per- 
formers, others, one by one, joining in, and each imper- 
ceptibly warming into savage attitudes of almost frenzical 
excitement. The legs are stretched to the utmost, the 
head is turned over one shoulder, the eyes glare, and are 
fixed with the fiercest energy in one direction ; the arms 
are raised, the hands usually grasping waddies, boomer- 
angs, and other weapons. The entire tableau is peculiarly, 
almost fearfully grand ; the dark, wild forest scenery around, 
the bright firelight gleaming on the savage and uncouth 
figures of the men, their natural dark hue being illumi- 
nated by their gaudy colouring, which also gives them 
an indescribably ghastly aspect ; their strange attitudes, 
their violent contortions and movements, together with 
the unearthly sound of their yells, mingled with the wild 
and monotonous wail of the women, makes altogether a 
very near approach to the horribly sublime. The ex- 
citement produced in the aborigine by this dance is ex- 
treme. However listless he may have been, he is filled 
with sudden energy on engaging in it, and every nerve 
is strung to the utmost degree. Then it is that anima- 
tion, wild, picturesque, and thrilling in its theatric in- 
tensity, lives in every movement, every gesture, and 
every yell to which he gives a momentary but vivid 


astonished. We, however, continued moving 
and at length reached a large and handsome 
bamboo building, into which we were by signs 
invited to enter, the natives dividing, and so 
forming a lane for that purpose. In a moment 
the slight tenement was full of people, while the 
crowd, unable to gain admission, gazed in at 
us through its open cane-work. 

We seated ourselves on the mats with which 
the floor was covered, and close to where seven 
noble-looking chiefs were squatted upon their 
haunches, and who regarded us with a fixed and 
stem attention, while all around the view was 
one of naked forms and tattooed limbs belong- 
ing to brawny warriors, and here and there a 
girl, all of whom were engaged in a perfect storm 
of conversation, and that about ourselves ; what 
an interesting position for us ! My companion 
suggested our moving hence; I warned him 
against doing so before we had established our- 
selves in the favour of the people. He observed 
that be had no wish to be eaten — that we did 
not know the character of the people. I re- 
minded him that we both rowed in the same 
boat. He looked at his boots, and manifested 





much nervous impatience, constantly keeping his 
hand near his concealed revolver, and looking 
round to see if such a thing as a tomahawk 
was descending in the direction of his skull. 
Our recent guides were fully occupied in an- 
swering the innumerable questions which every 
one asked of them. I had never before wit- 
nessed so much natural vivacity, animation, or 
fierce gesticulation evoked by conversation, as 
was now going on around me; unaccustomed 
as we were to such dancing and shouting, the 
alarm of my companion was but reasonable. 
The seven chiefs, who with rigid aspect, and in 
silence, kept their fourteen eyes fixed full upon 
us, still and steady, as if reading our very 
thoughts, tended much to disconcert the sailing 
master. He felt a momentary inclination to 
spring up and take to flight. I repeated my 
warning. We were evidently objects of rare 
curiosity to them. Those now before us had 
probably never seen a white man until the pre- 
sent occasion. They had perhaps heard of the 
existence of such, but nothing more. 

While the chief of the seven was eyeing me, 
apparently more intently even than any of the 


others, I suddenly thought of a vinaigrette 
which I had brought with me by some chance. 
I at once drew it forth, and so armed, proceeded 
to conciliate the natives, and ingratiate myself 
into their favour. Accordingly I handed it to 
the chief, whose eyes were so steadily directed 
towards me, signifying at the same time that he 
would do well to apply it to the region olfactory. 
He did so, and no sooner had he sniffed the 
perfume, than up he jumped, a seemingly charmed 
being, and as gleesome as he had before been 
the reverse. He applied it to dozens of noses 
one after the other, in rapid succession, looking in 
each case enquiringly into the countenance to 
observe the effect produced. Everybody was 
simultaneously anxious to bring his nose in 
dose proximity with the object of attraction. 
The effect was almost magical, and from an 
ominous distrust aU was fnendship and hospi- 
tality. There was much leaping and laughter 
after this — much capering of fair women and 
brave men, and, what was better still, a prompt 
supply of food, consisting of fruits and vegetables, 
raw and prepared. 

While we partook of this, a circle of young 

M 2 


females, fancifully decorated with flowers, en- 
gaged themselves in fanning aside the insects 
that occasionally alighted upon us, as well as 
in helping us to our unaccustomed viands. 
Meanwhile dozens of new faces were constantly 
making their appearance, and as quickly re- 
tiring again, to allow of the entrance of others. 
At length, and just as we had finished our re- 
past, a noble-looking warrior, well proportioned 
<md strikingly handsome, with a head-dress of 
towering plumes, stooped beneath the low portal 
and entered the house. The head-dress alluded 
to was formed of the splendid long and droop- 
ing tail feathers of the tropical bird, thickly in- 
terspersed with other brilliant pinions arranged 
in a large upright semicircle, their lower extre- 
mities being fixed in a crescent of guinea beads 
which spanned the forehead. Around his neck 
were several enormous necklaces of boars' tusks, 
polished Hke ivory, and so disposed that the 
longest and largest hung across his capacious 
chest. Thrust through the drop of each ear 
was a small and finely-shaped sperm whale tooth, 
presenting its cavity in front, stuffed with green 
leaves newly plucked, while at the other end it 



was carved into images and unique devices. 
His loins were begirt with heavy folds of a dark 
coloured tappa, hanging before and behind in 
clusters of braided tassels, while anklets and 
bracelets of curling human hair completed his 
unique costume. In his right hand he grasped 
a beautifully carved paddle-spear, nearly fifteen 
feet in length, made of the bright koar-wood, 
one end sharply pointed and the other flattened 
like an oar blade. Hanging obliquely from his 
girdle, and a loop of sinuate, was a richly-de- 
corated pipe, a slender reed forming the stem, 
which was coloured with a red pigment, while 
around it, as well as the idol bowl, fluttered 
little streamers of the thinnest tappa. But that 
which was most remarkable in the appearance 
of the splendid islander was the elaborated tat- 
tooing displayed over his entire body, in gro- 
tesque variety and profusion. The most simple 
and remarkable of all these ornaments was that 
which decorated his countenance. Two broad 
stripes of tattooing, diverging from the centre of 
his shaven crown, obliquely crossed both eyes, 
staining the lids to a little below the ear, where 
they united with another stripe, which swept in 


a Straight line along the lips, and formed the 
base of the triangle. 

This warlike specimen of nature's nobility, 
upon entering the house, seated himself at the 
opposite side to that which we occupied, while 
all the rest cast their eyes from him to us, and 
vice versa, as if they were in expectation of 
some great interchange of ideas; meanwhile 
he eyed us steadily and with piercing scru- 
tiny. It was not until the lapse of nearly ten 
minutes from the time of his entrance, that he 
proved himself endowed with the gift of utter- 
ance ; but at the end of that time he com- 
menced an harangue, addressed to us, which 
lasted for fully a quarter of an hour, and this he 
did in the n)0st deliberate and emphatic man- 
ner, waxing more eloquent as he advanced, 
if we might judge by his gesticulations, but ap- 
parently never thinking that we were as wise as 
owls as to the subject of his address and no 

" It's all Greek to me," said my companion 
at the outset, but as the warrior continued, his 
fears arose within him ; it might be sentence of 
death — what did he know what it might not be ? 


He yearned for the deck of the frigate, but oh ! 
what a gulf between. 

Strange to say, after this address was con- 
cluded, the warrior rose, and followed by several 
more naked persons^s, emerged through the 
doorway, leaving us seated and somewhat won- 
dering. I was, however, satisfied that his mis- 
sion was peaceful, although intended to acquaint 
and to warn us in some way, the particulars of 
which, owing to our dubiess of comprehension, 
did not transpire. 

We now rose and took om* way out of the 
house, hut lingered a little beyond th« portal, in 
admiration of the prospect by which we were 
surrounded, and in curiosity to observe the 
dusky and tattooed figures, and their unique 
dwelling.places_things rare for civilised man 
ever to behold. I stood surveying the house 
from which I had just emerged. 

I will describe its position. Near one side of 
the valley, and about midway up the ascent of a 
rather abrupt rise of ground, waving with the 
richest verdure, a number of large stones were 
laid in successive lines to the height of more 
than seven feet, and disposed in such a manner 



that their level surface corresponded in shape 
with the habitation which was perched upon it. 
A narrow space, however, was reserved in front 
of the dwelling, and upon the summit of this 
pile of stones, which being enclosed by a little 
picket of canes, gave it somewhat the appear- 
ance of a verandah. The frame of the house 
was constructed of large bamboos planted up- 
rightly, and secured together at intervals by 
transverse stalks of the light wood of the habis- 
cus lashed with thongs of bark. The rear of 
the tenement, built up with successive ranges of 
cocoa-nut boughs bound one upon another with 
their leaflets woven together, inclined a little 
from the vertical, and extended from the ex- 
treme edge of the stone-work to about twenty 
feet from its surface. From this the shelving 
roof, thatched with the long tapering leaves of 
the palmetto, sloped steeply off to within about 
five feet of the floor, leaving the eaves drooping 
with tassel-like appendages over the front of the 
habitation The latter was constructed of light 
and elegant canes twisted into an open screen- 
work, tastefully adorned with bindings of varie- 
gated sinuate, which served to hold together its 


various parts. The sides of the house were 
similarly built, thus presenting three quarters 
for the circulation of the air, while the whole 
was impervious to rain. In length this pic- 
turesque building was about twelve yards, while 
in breadth it did not exceed as many feet. On 
entering it, you passed in a necessarily stooping 
position through a narrow aperture in its front, 
and facing you on entering lay two long, per- 
fectly straight and well-polished trunks of the 
cocoa-nut tree, extending the full length of the 
dwelling, one of them placed closely against the 
rear, and the other lying parallel with it at the 
distance of about two yards, the interval be- 
tween them being spread with a multitude of 
gaily-worked mats, nearly all of a different pat- 
tern. This space formed the common couch 
and lounging-place of the inmates, where they 
reclined luxuriously by day and slumbered 
through the night. The remainder of the floor 
presented only the cool shining surfiaces of the 
large stones of which the outer pile was com- 
posed. From the ridge-pole of the house hung 
suspended a lumber of large packages enveloped 
in the coarse native doth made of bark, and 


which I have before mentioned under the name 
of tappa. These contained festival adornments 
and various other items appertaining to the 
wardrobe and toilette, which appeared to be 
held in high estimation. They were rendered 
easy of access by means of a line, which, passing 
over the ridge-pole, had one end attached to a 
bundle, while with the other, which led to the 
side of the dwelling and was there secured, 
each package could be lowered or elevated at 

Against the farther wall of the house were 
arranged, in tasteful figures, a variety of spears, 
javelins, and other instruments of warfare, the 
island being divided between two hostile tribes. 
Outside the edifice, and built upon the piazza- 
like area in its front, was a low shed used as a 
sort of larder, and in which were stored various 
articles of domestic use. A few yards removed 
firom the high stone-work was a large shed, built 
of cocoa-nut boughs, in which all the culinary 
operations of the household were conducted. 
This description would apply to nearly all the 
other tenements of the place. « 

I gazed again upon the aboriginal picture, 


and mused : '* Here," said I, " are none of those 
countless sources of evil and irritation which 
civilised man has devised to torture his own ex- 
istence, to mar his own felicity. Here are no 
foreclosures of mortgages, no protested notes, 
no bills payable, no unreasonable tradesmen per- 
versely bent on being paid ; no duns, no debts, 
no attorneys to tear as vultures the fortunes of 
their struggling prey ; no widows and orphans 
starving on the cold charities of the world, 
especially on * Christian charity,* the most un- 
charitable thing on earth ; no debtors' prisons, 
no beggars, and, better than all, no money." 
All was health, and joy, and beauty. Life 
wasf ree of toil, and a perpetual heyday. 

We now took our leave of those about us, 
and resumed our explorative journey across 
country towards the Nookoora bay. As we 
proceeded on our way, bands of young slightly- 
tattooed girls, decked with beads of flowers, 
darted from out the surrounding groves, and 
accompanied us with shouts of merriment and 
delight. But soon they left us again, and the 
country presented no sign of habitation. Wearily 
and for hours we toiled in our passage over the 


rugged ridges that intercepted our path towards 
the desired bay, and it was not until sunset that 
we rounded a point which revealed to us the 
welcome hull of the frigate. Our companion 
of the first day had regained the starting-point 
in safety late on the previous night, but much 
anxiety had been felt on our accoimt, and a 
search party had been formed and appointed to 
start at sunrise on the next day to follow in our 



On the ensuing morning I again went on shore 
in company with the captain and first lieutenant, 
for the purpose of acquiring such scanty infor- 
mation of the natives, their manners, and cus- 
toms, as our short stay at the island would 

The incidents of the day began with my 
entering an open shed of cocoa-nut boughs, in 
the centre of which was a tier constructed of 
elastic bamboo ingeniously twisted together, and 
on which lay a corpse neatly wrapped in new 
white doth of bark. The bier was supported 
at an elevation of about two feet from the 


ground, by large canes planted upright in the 
earth. Two females, wearing a very dejected 
aspect, watched by its side, plaintively chanting 
and beating the air with large grass fans 
whitened with pipe^clay. I ascertained that the 
body was that of a young man who had died 
about daybreak — only a few hours back. 

In the dwelling-house adjoining, a numerous 
company were assembled, and various articles of 
food were being prepared for consumption. 
Three individuals, distinguished by head-dresses 
of beautiful native cloth, and wearing numerous 
ornaments, such as the teeth and polished bones 
offish, appeared to be officiating as masters of the 
ceremonies, which latter, I was informed, would 
last for two days following, without intermission. 

With the exception of those who remained by 
the corpse, every one seemed disposed to drown 
the sense of the late bereavement in convivial 
indulgence. The girls, decked out in their native 
finery, with Flora for their jeweller, danced gaily, 
while the old men chanted, and the warriors in 
.their feathers smoked and chatted, and the 
young men held their revels, and all feasted, 
and seemed to be enjoying themselves with as 


V^^'^IT'* ■«.« ^ 




much display of merriment as though they 
were contributing to the festivity of a wedding. 

The islanders understand the art of embalming, 
and practise it with such success that the bodies 
of their great chiefs are frequently preserved for 
many years in the very houses where they died. 
I saw two of these in the course of this day. 
One was enveloped in immense folds of tappa^ 
with only the face exposed, and hung erect 
against the side of the dwelling. The other was 
extended upon a bier of bamboo, in an open 
elevated temple — a sort of mausoleum con- 
secrated to his memory. The heads of enemies 
killed in battle are invariably preserved and hung 
up as trophies in the houses of the conquerors. 
I saw one such, and, alike with the bodies last 
mentioned, it presented the appearance of being 
well smoked. The process employed T was 
unable to acquaint myself with. 

I have already made frequent allusion to the 
native cloth ; and, having had sufficient curiosity, 
at the time of which I write, to make myself 
acquainted with the process of its manufacture, 
I will here describe it. 

The preliminary operation consists in gather- 


ing a certain quantity of the young branches of 
certain trees. The exterior green bark, which 
is considered worthless, having been puUed off, 
there remains a slender fibrous substance, which 
is carefully stripped from the stick to which it 
closely adheres. When a sufficient quantity of 
it has been collected, the various strips are en- 
veloped in a covering of large leaves, which the 
natives use precisely as we do wrapping-paper, 
and which are secured by a few turns of a line 
passed round them. The package is then laid 
in the bed of some running stream, with a heavy 
stone placed over it, to prevent its being swept 

After it has remained for a few days in this 
state, it is drawn out, and exposed for a short 
time to the action of the air — every distinct 
piece being attentively inspected, with a view of 
ascertaining whether it has been sufficiently af- 
fected by the process. This is repeated until 
the desired result is obtained, by which time the 
substance is in a state of incipient decomposition, 
the fibres being relaxed and softened, and ren- 
dered perfectly malleable. 

The different strips are now extended, one by 


one, in successive layers, upon some smooth 
surface, generally the prostrate trunk of a cocoa- 
nut tree ; and the heap thus formed is subjected, 
at every new increase, to a moderate beating 
with a sort of mallet, in shape like a four-sided 
razor-strop, and made of hard wood. The flat 
surfaces of the implement, which is about twelve 
inches in length by two in breadth, with a round 
handle at one end, are marked with shallow 
parallel indentations, varying in depth on the 
different sides, so as to be adapted to the several 
stages of the operation. These marks produce 
the corduroy sort of stripes discernible in the 
cloth in its finished state. 

After being beaten in the manner described, 
the material soon becomes blended in one mass ; 
which, moistened occasionally with water, is at 
intervals hammered out by a kind of gold-beating 
process to any degree of thinness required. In 
this way the cloth is easily made to vary in 
strength and thickness, so as to suit the nu- 
merous purposes to which it is applied. 

After this, the newly-prepared fibre is spread 
out on the grass to bleach and dry, and soon 
becomes of a dazzling whiteness. Sometimes, 


in the first stage of the manufacture, the sub- 
stance is impregnated with a vegetable juice, 
which gives it a permanent colour. A rich 
brown and a bright yellow are occasionally seen ; 
but the simple taste of the inhabitants inclines 
them to prefer the natural colour. 

One thing which I observed surprised me 
very much ; and that was the native method of 
striking a light. 

A straight, dry, and partly decayed stick of 
the habiscus, about six feet in length and three 
inches in diameter, together with a smaller piece 
of wood, not more than a foot long, and scarcely 
an inch wide, constituted the match-box in 
every tenement. I saw one of these put in use. 
The native placed the larger stick obliquely 
against a block of stone, one end of which stick 
he elevated at an angle of about forty-five de- 
grees, and then mounted astride of it, after 
which he grasped the smaller one firmly in both 
hands, and rubbed its pointed end slowly up and 
down the extent of a few inches on the principal 
stick, until at last he made a narrow groove in 
the wood with an abrupt termination at the 
point furthest from him, where all the dusty 


particles which the friction created were accu- 
mulated in a small heap. Gradually he quick- 
ened his pace, and waxing warm in the employ- 
ment, drove the stick furiously along the smok- 
ing chamiel, plying his hands to and fro with 
amazing rapidity, the perspiration meanwhile 
starting from every pore. As he approached 
the climax of his effort, he panted and gasped 
for breath, and his eyes almost started from 
their sockets with the violence of his exertions. 
He had now arrived at the critical stage of the 
operation. All his previous labours would be 
rendered futile, if he did not sustain the rapidity 
of the movement until the reluctant spark came 
forth. Suddenly he stopped, and became per- 
fectly motionless. His hands still retained their 
hold of the smaller stick, which he pressed con- 
vulsively against the further end of the channel 
among the fine dust there accumulated, as if he 
had just pierced and pinned some small viper 
that was wriggling and struggling to escape 
from his clutches. The next moment, a delicate 
wreath of smoke curled spirally into the air, the 
heaps of dusty particles glowed with fire, and 
the operator, almost breathless, dismounted from 


his seat on the inclined plane. This was the 
most laborious thing of the kind I had ever 
seen ; but it was an institution of the country ; 
and while the natives were satisfied, I had no 
cause to do otherwise than admire such dexte- 
rous perseverance. It was the only hard work 
they ever did. 

I found the bread-fruit tree and the cocoa-nut 
to be the most abundant as well as the most 
valuable upon the island. Of the first, and the 
mode of preparing its fruit, I shall offer a de* 
scription. The tree, in its glorious prime, is a 
grand and towering object, with wide-spread, 
stalwart branches, and imposing height. The 
leaves are of great size, and their edges are cut 
and scolloped as fantastically as the most artistic 
design in European lace-work. As they annually 
tend towards decay, the tints displayed among 
their foliage are as varied as in effect they are 
beauti^. The leaf, in one particular stage, 
when nearly all the prismatic colours are blended 
on its surface, is often converted by the natives 
into a superb and highly ornamental head-dress. 
In doing this, the principal fibre traversing its 
length is split open to a certain length, and the 
elastic sides of the aperture pressed apart. The 


head is then inserted between them, the leaf 
drooping on one side, its frontal half being 
turned up jauntily on the brows, while . the re- 
maining part spreads laterally behind the ears. 

The fruit somewhat resembles in size and 
appearance an ordinary citron melon ; but, unlike 
the citron, it has no sectional lines drawn along 
the outside. Its surface is dotted all over with 
little conical prominences ; the rind is about an 
eighth of an inch in thickness ; and denuded of 
this at the time when it is in its greatest perfec- 
tion, the fruit presents a beautiful globe of white 
pulp, the whole of which is eatable, the slender 
core excepted, which is easy of removal. It is, 
however, invariably cooked before being made 
fit for human food. 

The most simple method of doing this is to 
, place any number of the freshly plucked fruit, 
when in a particular stage of greenness, among 
the embers of a fire. After the lapse of about 
a quarter of an hour the green rind embrowns 
and cracks, displaying through the fissures in 
its sides the milk-white interior. As soon as it 
cools, the rind drops off, and the soft, round 
pulp in its purest and most delicious state is 


ready for the table. Sometimes it is subjected 
to a second process. As soon as it is taken 
from the fire, the exterior is removed, the core 
extracted, and the remaining part placed in a 
sort of shallow stone mortar, and briskly worked 
with a pestle of the same substance. While 
one person is performing this operation, another 
takes a ripe cocoa nut, and breaking it in half, 
proceeds to grate the juicy contents into fine 
particles. This is done by means of a piece of 
mother-of-pearl shell lashed firmly to the ex- 
treme end of a heavy stick, with its straight 
side accurately notched like a saw. The stick 
is sometimes a grotesquely carved limb of a tree, 
with three or four branches twisting from its 
body like so many shapeless legs, and sustaining 
it two or three feet from the ground. The 
native, first placing a calabash beneath the pro- 
jecting part of his wooden machine, for the 
purpose of its receiving the grated fragments 
as they fall, places himself astride of it, and 
twirling the inside of one of his halves of cocoa 
nut round the sharp teeth of the mother-of-pearl 
shell, the nut falls in snowy showers into the 
receptacle provided. 


When he has obtained a quantity sufficient 
for his purpose, he places it in a bag made of 
the net-like fibrous substance attached to all 
cocoa nut trees, and compressing it over the 
bread fruit, which being now sufficiently pounded, 
is put into a wooden bowl, he extracts a thick, 
creamy milk. The delicious liquid soon bubbles 
round the fruit and leaves, it at last just peeping 
above its surface. The preparation is now ready, 
and a very luscious one it is. 

At certain seasons of the year, when the fruit 
has reached its maturity, and hangs in golden 
spheres from every branch, the natives assemble 
in harvest groups and garner in the abundance 
which surrounds them. The trees are stripped 
of their nodding burdens, which, easily freed 
from the rind and core, are gathered together in 
capacious wooden vessels, where the pulpy fruit 
is soon worked, by a stone pestle vigorously 
applied, into a blended mass of a firm paste- 
like consistency. This is then divided into 
separate parcels, which, after being made up 
into stout packages, enveloped in successive 
folds of leaves, and bound round with thongs 
of bark, are stored away in large receptacles 


hollowed in the earth, from whence they are 
drawn as occasion may require. In this con- 
dition it sometimes remains undisturbed for 
years, — the supposition being that it improves 
with age. Before it is fit to be eaten, however, 
it has to undergo an additional process. A 
primitive oven is scooped in the ground, and 
its bottom being loosely covered with stones, a 
large fire is kindled within it. As soon as the 
requisite degree of heat is attained, the embers 
are removed, and the surface of the stones being 
covered with thick layers of leaves, one of the 
large packages of the preparation is deposited 
upon them, and overspread with another layer 
of leaves. The whole is then quickly heaped 
up with loam, and forms a sloping mound. 
This baking converts the mass into an amber- 
coloured cake-like substance, slightly tart, but 
by no means ungrateful to the palate. 

By another and final process the latter may be 
changed into what is termed kee-kee, the form in 
which it is most commonly consumed. This is 
quickly done; the composition, as we last left it, be- 
ing merely placed in a vessel and mixed with water 
until it gains a proper pudding-like consistency, 


which is highly glutinous. It is conveyed to 
the mouth by the fore- finger being dipped into 
its adhesive depth, and by a peculiar twirl of 
that then thickly coated limb it is conveyed to 
the mouth, from which the finger is just as 
quickly withdrawn entirely free of the paste. 
This dipping is continued till the hunger of the 
individual engaged is sufficiently appeased to 
induce a cessation of operations in that respect. 

In the course of our wanderings we came 
within view of a remarkable pyramidical struc- 
ture, evidently of recent erection, and adjoining a 
large wooden tenement. Crowds were assembled 
around both, and much feasting and revelry were 
evidently going forward. Arches of calabashes 
and cocoa nuts were to be seen decked with 
flowers, beneath which the damsels were dancing 
gaily, and otherwise enjoying themselves in the 
shade. The whole population of the district 
appeared to be gathered within the precincts of 
this one grove, and to be taking part in this 
one festive scene. In the distance we discerned 
the long front of another and larger tenement, 
its immense piazza swarming with men arrayed 
in every variety of fantastic costume, and all 



vociferatiDg with animated gestures, while the 
entire space between was enlivened by groups of 
females fancifully decorated, and uttering excla- 
mations of a strangely ringing wildness. We 
advanced in the direction of the larger tenement, 
skirting and hiding ourselves in the grove as 
we went, so as not to prove a source of inter- 
ruption to the revels of the happy throng, who 
were already alarmed at our presence, and set up 
a peculiar halloo, which somewhat startled my 
companions, but which I informed them was 
more expressive of dismay and surprise than 
anything else. 

"We'll introduce ourselves presently, and 
rely upon it we shall have a welcome." And 
in five minutes afterwards I had made my 
salaam to one of the chiefs, and a band of 
young girls were dancing round us, chanting as 
they went. 

Over the entire length of the piazza of the 
larger tenement were arranged elaborately-carved 
canoe-shaped vessels, some twenty feet in length, 
filled with newly-prepared bread-fruit and cocoa- 
nut, and sheltered from the sun by the broad 
leaves of the banana. At intervals were heaps 


of green bread-fruit raised in pyramidical 

Inserted into the interstices of the huge stones, 
which formed the groundwork, were large boughs 
of trees, hanging from the branches of which, 
and screened from the sun by their foliage, were 
innumerable small packages with leafy coverings, 
containing the cooked flesh of hogs, which had 
been thus folded and divided, in order to make 
it more accessible to the multitude. Leaning 
against the railing of the piazza were an im- 
mense number of long, heavy bamboos, plugged 
at the lower end, and with their projecting muz- 
zles stuffed with a wad of leaves. These were 
filled with water from a neighbouring stream, 
and each of them held from four to five gallons. 

This was the banquet, and every one was at 
liberty to help himself at pleasure. Accordingly, 
every moment witnessed some new demolition of 
the good things. Calabashes of the kee-kee were 
being replenished at short intervals from the 
extensive receptacle in which that article was 
stored, and numerous small fires were burning 
about the tenement for the purpose of roasting 
the bread-fruit. The interior of the building 

N 2 


itself presented a sight still more novel* The 
immense lounge of mats, lying between the 
parallel rows of the trunks of cocoa-nut trees 
and extending the entire length of the house, at 
least two hundred feet, was covered with the 
redining forms of a host of chiefs and war- 
riors, who were either eating with much gusto, 
or indulging in the sedative fumes of the native 
tobacco, which grows wild. The smoke was 
inhaled from large pipes, the bowls of which, 
made out of small cocoa-nut shells, were curi- 
ously carved over with strange devices. These 
were passed from hand to hand by the recum- 
bent smokers ; each, after taking two or three 
prodigious whiffs, handed the pipe to his neigh- 
bour; sometimes, in order to accomplish that 
purpose, stretching himself indolently across the 
body of i^ome dozing individual, whose exertions 
at the feast had already induced a state of som- 

On entering from the house we were sur- 
prised to see the whole distance filled by bands 
of girls, shouting and dancing, under the influ- 
ence of some strange excitement. Nearer we 
were amused at the appearance of half-a-dozen 


old women in puris naturalibus^ who, with 
their arms hanging flatly at their sides and 
holding themselves perfectly erect, were leaping 
stiffly into the air, meanwhile preserving the 
utmost gravity of countenance. After continu* 
ing their extraordinary movements without a siui- 
gle moment's cessation for about a quarter of an 
hour, they ceased their performance, which ap<- 
peared to attract little or no attention, and 
quietly disappeared in the crowd. I tried to 
ascertain the reason for the dance of so un<- 
sightly a group, but my curiosity was not re- 
warded with the desired information. We wer^ 
now invited to partake of the viands spread as 
before described, one of the chiefs showing us 
how to eat the kee-kee, by dipping his fore- 
finger into a calabash of it, and twirling it thence 
into his mouth. I tried it, but the operation 
proved difficult to the unaccustomed, and I 
should have had a wearisome task to perforin 
before dining sufficiently, by the medium of so 
dexterous and limited an agency. 

From this we passed on to the Tooloola 
ground. Within the spacious quadrangle the 
whole population of the neighbourhood seemed 


to be assembled, and the sight was at once 
unique and remarkable. Beneath the sheds of 
bamboo which opened towards the interior 
of the square, reclined the principal chiefs, 
while a miscellaneous throng lay at ease 
under the foliage of the majestic trees. Upon 
the terraces of gigantic altars, built at either 
end, were deposited green bread-fruit in baskets 
of cocoa-nut leaves, also large rolls of native 
doth, bunches of ripe bananas, clusters of mam- 
mee apples, the golden-hued fruit of the ootoa 
tree, and baked bogs, all laid out in large 
wooden trenches fancifully decorated with freshly- 
plucked leaves, whilst a variety of rude imple- 
ments of war were piled in confused heaps be- 
fore the ranks of strangely-carved idols hewn 
out of wood. Fruits of various kinds were like- 
wise suspended in leafen baskets, from the tops 
of poles planted uprightly and at regular in- 
tervals along the lower terraces of both altars. 
At their base were arranged two parallel rows 
of cumbersome drums, standing about sixteen 
feet in height, and formed from the hollow 
trunks of large trees. Their heads were co- 
vered with shark skins, and their barrels were 


elaborately carved with a variety of unique 
figures and devices. At regular distances they 
were bound round with a species of sinnate of 
various colours, while strips of native cloth were 
fastened upon them here and there. Behind 
these instruments were built slight platforms, 
upon which stood about twenty young men 
who beating violently with the palms of their 
hands upon the drum-heads, produced outrage- 
ous sounds, which, however, appeared to conduce 
to the general hilarity. Every few minutes these 
musical performers hopped down from their eleva- 
tion and mingled with the crowd b(»low, while 
their places in the orchestra were immediately 
occupied by others ; thus an incessant din was 
kept up, a perpetual whirring and booming, which 
entirely belonged to the order of things startling. 
In the centre of the quadrangle were placed per- 
pendicularly in the ground a hundred or more 
slender fresh-cut poles, stripped of their bark^ 
and decorated at the end with a floating pen- 
nant of white cloth, the whole being fenced 
about by a picket of canes. The meaning of 
this I was unable to discover. 
Another striking feature of the performance 


going on around was exhibited by fifteen old 
men, who sat cross-legged in the little pulpits 
which encircled the trunks of the immense trees 
growing in the middle of the enclosure. These 
antique accessories, who it was presumed were 
the priests, kept up an uninterrupted and most 
monotonous chant, which was nearly drowned in 
the roar of drums. 

In the right hand they each held a finely- 
woven grass fan, with a heavy black woodea* 
handle, curiously carved, and which fans they 
kept in as perpetual a motion as their tongues. 
But alike with the drummers, no attention seemed 
to he paid to these patriarchal gentlemen, the 
individuals who composed that vast crowd pre- 
sent being taken up in chatting and laughing 
with one another, smoking, drinking, and eating. 
Such a prodigious uproar — such striking of in^ 
struments and clatter of voices — such aboriginal 
romping and gesticulation — in fact, anything so 
imposingly, so wondrously complicated, yet so 
wild, I had never witnessed before, and never 
shall again. My companions were half bewil- 
dered at the strange scene in the midst of which 
they found themselves. Did they dream ? and 


was this pandemonium ? Oh, no ; cheer up, 
captain, they are only the wild children of nature, 
holding their revels in the happy enjoyment of 
life, and no douht they would be better without 
us. Let us go. And so we passed from the 
glad scene of profusion and delight, and were 
soon again treading our lonely way through the 
shady groves of Nookooroo. 




On our way we skirted a stream, while doing 
which we observed a woman sitting upon a rock in 
the midst of the current, and watching with the 
Uveliest interest the gambols of something which 
at first we unanimously took to be an uncom- 
monly large species of frog that was sporting 
in the water near her. Attracted by the novelty 
of the sight, we advanced towards the spot where 
she sat, and could hardly credit the evidence of 
our senses, when we beheld a small infant, the 
period of whose birth, judging by unmistakeable 
appearances, could not have been many days 
anterior, and which offspring was paddling about 


as if it had just risen to the surface after being 
launched into existence at the bottom. Occa- 
sionally the delighted parent held out her hands 
towards it, when the little thing uttering a faint 
cry and striking out its tiny limbs, would sidle 
for the rock, and the next moment be clasped 
to its mother's breast. This was repeated again 
and again, the baby remaining in the stream 
about a minute at a time. Once or twice it 
made wry faces at swallowing a mouthful of 
water, and coughed and spluttered as if in the 
act of choking. At such times, however, the 
mother snatched it up, and by a peculiar jerking 
of its body induced an ejection of the undue 
element. Thus early are the inhabitants of these 
islands initiated into the swimming art. No 
wonder, therefore, that their amphibiousness is 
so manifest in after-life. 

Winding our way through the groves, we 
came upon a scene which would have refreshed 
the eye of the antiquarian, as much as it im- 
pressed us with an idea of the great antiquity of 
the structures which it embraced. At the base 
of one of the hills, and surrounded on all sides 
by dense groves, a series of vast terraces of stone 


rose step by step for a considerable distance up 
its slope. These terraces were not less than a 
hundred yards in length by thirty in width* 
Their magnitude, however, was less striking 
than the immense size of the blocks composing 
them. Some of the stones, the latter of an 
oblong shape, were fifteen feet iu length, by a 
thickness of six feet. Their sides were quite 
smooth, but although square and of regular for- 
mation, they bore no mark of the chisel. They 
were laid together without cement, and here and 
there gaps intervened betweenf them. The top- 
most terrace and the lower one were somewhat 
more peculiar in their construction ; they had 
each a quadrangular depression in the centre, 
leaving the rest of the terrace elevated several 
feet above it. In the interstices of the stones 
immense trees were growing, their wide-spread- 
ing branches forming a canopy which was almost 
impenetrable to the rays of the sun. Overgrow- 
ing the greater part of them, and climbing from 
one to the other, flourished a luxuriant wilder- 
ness of vines, in whose sinewy embrace many of 
the stones lay half hidden, while in some places a 
thick growth of underwood entirely covered them. 

^^■^— ^^^^^— T^^^M I 11 I w  ^iw—^^^m  III I   ^^tm^^r^ — w^ 


A wUd pathway obliquely crossed two of these 
terraces, but so profound was the shade, so dense 
the vegetation, that we were just as likely to 
have passed along it without being aware of 
these vestiges of the colossal handiwork of a 
generation long departed/ There were no in- 
scriptions, no sculpture, no due by which to 
conjecture their history, the dumb stones alone 
bore testimony of the past. Here was a scene 
that inspired me with as much interest as the 
circumstance of my being unable to ascertain 
more about it filled me with regret. 

A little way beyond this, in a spot secluded 
by the banks of the same stream in which we 
had just seen the young islander disport, and 
beneath the shade of a growth of palms which 
stood ranged along its banks, waving their green 
arms in the gentle breeze, we came upon the 
mausoleum of a deceased warrior chief. Like 
all the other principal edifices, it was raised upon 
a small platform of stones, which latter being of 
unusual height, was a conspicuous object as seen 
from a distance. A light thatching of bleached 
palmetto leaves hung over it like a self-supported 
canopy ; for it was not until we approached 


very closely that we observed its support of four 
slender columns of bamboo rising at each corner 
to a height of about six feet. A dear area of a 
few yards surrounded the stone^work, and was 
enclosed by four trunks of cocoa-nut trees rest- 
ing at the angles on *massive blocks of stone. 
Sacred was the place — holy was the ground we 
trod. The sign of consecration was displayed 
in the form of a mystic roll of white bark doth, 
suspended by a twisted cord of the same mate- 
rial from the top of a slight pole planted within 
the enclosure. The sanctity of the spot ap- 
peared never to have been violated. The silent 
stillness of the grave reigned around, impressive 
in its solemnity ; and the calmness of its solitude 
was at once beautiful and touching. 

The soft shadows of those lofty palm-trees 
hung over the little temple, adding sombreness 
to shade — how graceful to the view, how fitting 
to the scene. Welcome palms ! still before my 
vision are your forms. As we approached this 
silent spot we caught sight of the commemo- 
rated chiefs effigy placed in a sitting posture 
in the stem of a canoe, which was raised on a 
light frame a few inches above the level of the 


stone-work. The canoe was about seven feet 
in length, and of a rich dark-coloured wood, 
handsomely carved, and adorned in many places 
with variegated bindings of stained sinnate, into 
which were ingeniously wrought numerous spark- 
ling sea-shdOs, while a belt of the latter ran all 
round it. The body of the figure was effectually 
concealed by a heavy robe of white bark doth, 
revealing only the hands and head, the latter 
skilfully carved in wood^ and surmounted by a 
superb arch of plumes ; these, in the subdued 
breeze which fanned across to this sequestered 
spot, were constantly in motion, nodding and 
waving over the hero's brow. The long leaves 
of the palmetto drooped over the eaves, and 
through them the chief could be seen holding 
his paddle with both hands in the act of rowing, 
leaning forward and inclining his head as if 
eager to hurry on his voyage. Glaring at him, 
and face to face, was a polished human skull, 
which crowned the prow of his canoe. This 
spectral figure-head, reversed in its position, and 
glancing backwards, seemed to mock the impa- 
tient attitude of the warrior. There he was, 
paddling his way to the realms of bliss, where 

I HWPW^^i^^^ 


bread fruit trees dropped their ripened spheres 
to the ground in plenty, and where cocoa-nuts 
and bananas were in equal abundance; where 
the mats were much finer than in Nookoora, 
and where rivers of cocoa-nut oil invited the 
glowing limbs of that realm's inhabitants. 
Farewell, brave one, I must leave thee. Here 
was a sign of that vague yearning of the spirit 
of man after the unknown future — that soaring 
up to immortality. 



A COCOA-NUT tree is a beautiful sight, and 
here I often stood and feasted my eyes on its 
invaluable and inviting fruit, which, borne aloft 
on a stately column more than a hundred feet 
from the ground, almost tempted me to climb 
in its pursuit; but the endeavour would have 
been vain, for the slender, smooth, and soaring 
trunk, without a single limb or protuberance, 
presented an obstacle in the way of ascending it 
that was only to be overcome by the surprising 
agility and ingenuity of the natives. Their vo- 
luptuous and luxurious indolence it might be 
supposed would lead them to patiently await 


the period when the ripened nuts, slowly parting 
from their stems, would fall one by one to the 
ground ; and this would no doubt be the case, 
were it not that the young fruit, encased in a 
soft green husk, is what they chiefly prize. The 
reason of this is, that at that stage of its growth 
the incipient fruit adheres in a jelly-like pellicle 
to the sides of the shell, and contains a bumper 
of the most delicious nectar. There exists about 
twenty different terms among the islanders to 
express as many progressive stages in the deve- 
lopment of the nut. Many of them reject the 
fruit altogether except at a particular period of 
its growth. Others are still more capricious in 
their tastes, and after gathering a heap of the 
nuts, variously aged, and ingeniously tapping 
them, will sip first from one and then from 
another as fastidiously as an exquisite in wines, 
glass in hand, will explore his cellar and taste of 
the different vintages. 

In climbing the tree, which can only be done 
by the possessors of flexible frames, the native 
rushes towards it, and clasping both arms about 
the trunk, with one elevated a little above the 
other, he presses the soles of his feet dose toge- 


ther against the tree, extending his legs from it 
until they are nearly horizontal, and his body 
becomes doubled into an arch ; then, hand over 
hand and foot over foot, he rises from the earth 
with steady rapidity, and quickly gains the 
cradled and embowered nest of nuts, and, with 
a boisterous manifestation of glee, flings the 
fruit to the ground. 

This mode of walking the tree is only prac- 
ticable where the trunk declines considerably 
from the perpendicular. This, however, is al- 
most invariably the case ; many even of the 
perfectly straight stems lean at an angle of 
thirty degrees. 

The less active among the men, and many of 
the young children, have another method of 
climbing. They take a broad aad stout piece 
of bark, and secure either end of it to their 
ankles, so that when the feet thus confined are 
extended apart, a space of about twelve inches 
is left between them. This contrivance greatly 
facilitates the act of climbing. The band 
pressed against the tree, and closely embracing 
it, yields a tolerably firm support, while with 
the arms clasped about the trunk, and at regular 



distances sustaining the body, the feet are drawn 
up nearly a yard at a time, and a corresponding 
elevation of the hands immediately succeeds. 
At the top of the tree the numerous branches, 
radiating on all sides from a common centre, 
form a sort of green and waving basket, between 
the leaflets of which the nuts are to be discovered 
clustering thickly together, and on the loftier trees 
looking no bigger, as seen from the ground, than 
bunches of grapes. 

The birds of the island are beautiful, but 
songless ; they come down in gleaming flights 
from the mountains; and the gay plumage 
of starry throngs may be seen flashing in 
the sunlight as they sweep across the val- 
leys ; but, alas ! there is not a warbler among 
them. Their beauty is dumb, — they flit away 
like spirits — solemn messengers, I ween, are 
the purple-billed birds of Nookoora. 

Besides the sticks and drums, there were no 
other musical instruments among the islanders, 
save one, which might figure under the deno- 
mination of a nasal flute. It was somewhat 
longer than an ordinary fife, and made of a beau- 
iful scarlet-coloured reed. It was provided with 


five stops and a large hol(^ near one end, which 
Jatter^ during the time of being played upon, 
was held just beneath the left nostril; the 
right one being closed by a peculiar movement 
of the muscles about the nose. It produced a 
soft dulcet sound, which was varied by the 
fingers running at random over the stops. 
This instrument aflTords a favourite recreation 
to the gentler sex, and is very gracefully 

I was much pleased to observe the simplicity 
of manner, the freedom from all restraint, and 
the equality of condition, with trifling exceptions, 
presented by the island community. There 
was no assumption of arrogant pretensions, and 
a very slight diflference of costume only distin- 
guished the chiefs from the rest. The required 
degree of deference towards the former was 
willingly and cheerfully yielded, and all seemed 
to live in the most perfect social harmony. No 
courts of law and equity, — no municipal police 
or legal provisions here existed, or were here 

The people were actuated by an inherent 
principle of good-will towards each other, and 


by that sort of tacit instinctive law which dis- 
criminates between right and wrong, and which 
is innate, and by nature belongs to us all, wher- 
ever we may be. Contrast the practice of this 
with a civilised community, and mark the mighty 
difFerence ! The produce of the earth, by pri- 
mitive right, belongs equally to us all, and it is 
only where civilization steps in that the sharing 
is rendered so unequal that vast numbers are 
exposed to starvation, while others are burdened 
with an excess, which, if more equally distributed, 
would have contributed to the good of all, with- 
out exception. 

Civilization, as we at present find it, by no 
means engrosses all the virtues of our nature ; 
it has even blunted them beneath the sheer 
force of a vicious strength. They flourish far 
more among the uncivilised nations of the 

Here I found a people living together in the 
most perfect unison of thought and action. I 
am by no means a savage in my tastes ; and, 
although I have been an observer of much that 
is wild and aboriginal, I am personally as much 


a lover of the luxuries and refinements of civi- 
lisation as I should be the reverse to become the 
occupant of a gunya, or wigwam, or any such 
similar habitation, or to engage myself in- climb- 
ing after cocoa nuts in a suit of bright tattoo ; 
but I say again that although there is less enlight- 
enment, the practice of the virtues of our species 
is more rife among the members of a barbarous 
than a civilised people. This is a plain incon- 
trovertible fact, and its existence is a melancholy 
subject to reflect upon, showing as it does the 
imperfection of our present system of society — 
I use the word in its broadest sense — and the 
need it has of regeneration. This last is a 
very sermon-like word to use, but, reader, it 
expresses the very thing which, in this year of 
grace eighteen hundred and fifty-nine, we all 
want, both as men and nations ; the probability, 
however, is, that we shall have to wait a long 
time for it — in other words, that the process will 
be a very slow one, and that more than one 
generation will pass away before there is much 
appearance of the re-generation. Such is life. 
As we were emerging from the wood into an 



open space near the shore, we had a full view of 
one of the handsomest native men I had seen on 
the island. He could not have been more than 
twenty-five years of age, and was a little above 
the average height ; had he been in the slightest 
degree taller, the matchless symmetry of his 
form would have been destroyed. His unclad 
limbs were beautifully shaped, while the outline 
of his figure, the oval of his countenance, and 
the regularity of every feature, were alike fault- 
less. His hair was a rich curling brown, and 
twined about his temples and neck in close ring- 
lets. His cheek was of a feminine softness, 
and his face was free from the least blemish of 
tattooing, although the rest of his body was 
drawn all over with fanciful figures, which ap- 
peared, unlike the usual unconnected sketching, 
to have been executed in conformity with some 
general design. The tattooing on his back in 
particular attracted my attention. Traced along 
the course of the spine was accurately delineated 
the slender tapering and diamond-checkered 
shaft of the beautiful ootoo tree. Branching 
from the stem on either side, and disposed 


alternately, were the graceful boughs drooping 
with leaves, all correctly drawn and elaborately 
finished. A near view of him niight have sug- 
gested the idea of a spreading vine tacked 
against a garden wall. Upon his breast, arms, 
and legs were exhibited a great variety of figures, 
every one of which, however, appeared to have 
reference to the general effect sought to be pro- 
duced. The tattooing was of the brightest blue, 
and when contrasted with the light olive colour 
of the skin, produced a unique and even elegant 
effect. A slight girdle of the native white cloth, 
scarcely two inches in width, but hanging in 
front, and the reverse, in spreading tassels, com- 
posed his entire costume. In his right hand he 
grasped a long and richly decorated spear. As 
we neared him, his eyes flashed with surprize 
and animation, while his countenance expressed 
the keenest intelligence. 

We halted at a short distance, and signalled 
him to approach ; but, instead of so doing, he 
uttered an exclamation, accompanied with a wave 
of the spear hand, and walked deliberately into 
the forest. This was the last aboriginal inci- 
dent worthy of being recorded that met my ob- 



servation on the island, for in half an hour 
afterwards, during which time we did not meet 
a single individual, we gained the beach, and 
took our seats in the gig there waiting our re- 



No one could fa3, on beholding the islanders 
of Nookoora, in being struck with admiration 
of the great strength and beauty of their forms, 
or yet in remarking the marvellous whiteness 
of their well-cut teeth ; nor yet could he fail in 
observing, and that perhaps with astonishment, 
the endless variety of complexions which the 
population presents. In symmetrical mould of 
form they surpassed the physical beauty of any 
other race I had ever seen. The men in nearly 
every instance were of lofty stature, that is not 
less than six feet, while each would have 
afforded a good model for the sculptor. With 

o 2 



the women, however, the case, as regards height, 
was just the reverse, they being, without excep- 
tion, exceedingly diminutive. 

The climate favours rapid physical develop- 
ment, and girls at thirteen may be seen nursing 
their own children, while their noble lords are 
but little more advanced in years. It is difficult 
to assign an adequate cause for the variation in 
complexions. I observed several young girls 
whose skin Was of an almost Anglo-Saxon 
whiteness, a slight dash of the mantling brown 
being all that marked the difference. This 
comparative fairness of complexion, although in 
a great degree perfectly natural, was partly the 
result of an artificial process, and of an entire 
exclusioh from the sun. The juice of the Le-ka 
root, which grows abundantly on the island, £ 
found to be much used by the women as a 
cosmetic, and with which many of them daily 
anointed the entire body. The habitual use of it 
tends to whiten and beautify the skin. Those of 
the young females who resorted to this method 
of heightening their charms, never exposed 
themselves to the rays of the sun. This may 


oe thought to have been a rather ineonvenient 
observance, but such, however, was not so felt, 
on account of there being but few of the inha- 
bited portions of a district that were not shaded 
over with a spreading canopy of foliage, so that 
one might journey from house to house, scarcely 
deviating from the direct course, and yet never 
cast a shadow. 

In its application, tbe'le-ka, which is of a 
light green colour, is allowed to remain upon 
the skin for several hours, imparting for the 
time being a similar hue to the complexion. 
The appearance, therefore, of a young lady 
labile undergoing this process, is very singular, 
and as much suggestive of vegetable as of ani^ 
mal life. 

AU the islanders are more or less in the habit 
of anointing themselves, the women giving pre- 
ference to the le-ka, and the men to the oil of 
the cocoa-nut. To this cause, united to their 
frequent bathing and extreme cleanliness, was 
ascribable in part the almost marvellous purity 
and smoothness of the skin exhibited by the 
people in general. 


The prevailing tint among the women was a 
light olive ; others were darker, while a few 
were of a genuine golden colour, and some of a 
swarthy hue. The males I found considerably 
outnumbered the females, the result of which is 
that each of the latter has two husbands. 

The ratio of increase among them was very 
small, a woman seldom having more than 
two children. This affords a pleasant contrast 
to the arithmetical progression — the rabbit-like 
fecundity in that respect, witnessed elsewhere. 

The cares of the nursery, it was evident with 
the women of Nookoora, but seldom disturbed 
the serenity of their souls. No half-score of off- 
shoots tugged at their scanty garments, or dis- 
turbed the peace of their community. 

Nature in this balmy clime supplies the wants 
of man without requiring the tribute of his 
labour. She has planted the bread fruit, the 
cocoa-nut, and the banana, and in her own good 
time she brings them to maturity, when the 
voluptuous heir to these good things extends 
his hand and gathers according to the dictates 
of his appetite. 


Happy the being who can thus partake of 
the spontaneous fruits of the earth, and live 
without the degradation of being hired to toil. 
Here, in Europe, the mass of human beings are 
driven to their work as mere animals of burden ; 
and as so many cogs in the wheel of labour, 
they toil from morning till night, day after day, 
and year after year, till, released by death, they 
find rest in their premature graves. And this 
is civilization. 

Thousands every day perish the untimely 
victims to their own peculiar industry — 
pursuits of a pernicious nature called into 
existence by society, yet yielding to those 
engaged only a wretched pittance — a mere 
subsistence, and often not even bread. Con* 
trast this with the luxurious indolence of primi- 
tive man, in the contented enjoyment of the 
gifts of nature as seen even in Nookoora. He 
is, however, already assailed by those indefa- 
tigable gentlemen the missionaries, who, aided 
by their wives and the usual swarm of children, 
(fruits consequent on the well-obeyed biblical in* 
junction to people the earth,) lay the foundation 


of a settlement by building up villas to them- 
selves', and enclosing neat gardens and well- 
kept lawns, and assisting in the consumption 
of the produce which surrounds them, never 
thinking that every inch they thus occupy is so 
much curtailment of the resources of the abori- 
gines, so much moral robbery, so much injustice, 
destined to be productive of more fatal injury 
and wretchedness than all the crime of the 
country from which they came, and where they 
are infinitely more needed than on the domains 
of aboriginalism, acting as pioileers in the path 
of a parcel of usurpers and invaders. It is con- 
secrating wrong and overthrowing right, thus 
to send out disciples to civilise (?) aborigines, — 
to " civilise" is to hurry them to destruction, — 
to sweep them off the face of the earth, for 
the sake of gaining possession of the ter- 
ritories which they occupied through the course 
of ages. 

Some of the missionaries at the Sandwich 
Islands held the natives in such little respect, 
that they made them do the work of horses in 
dragging them about the villages in a sort of 

"^." 'Vwm -<• •< ■^^OT«v^^B^«MH««v^HM*avMHiHP^nBnp 


basket on wheels, and this is a sufficient criterion 
of the spirit which actuates many of them, — 
even they the representatives of Christianity. 

Alas ! that such degradation and destruction 
should inevitably attend what so many well- 
intentioned Christians at home give their aid to, 
and what so many models of excellence so 
strenuously advocate at our public gatherings. 
The enterprise, the task, the intended philan- 
thropy deserves better ; for no accession to the 
number of our faith has been virtually and per- 
manently gained by the workings of mission- 
aries. During life the natives are but nominal 
converts, understanding nothing in reality, nor 
caring to understand anything about the religion 
preached to them ; and when the generation dies 
away, what is there left? Nothing but the 
inglorious triumph of civilization over abori- 
ginalism — the victory of might over right. 

There is no harm in the attempt to convert 
the Jews to Christianity, seeing that they belong 
to the same community as ourselves, and that 
they are capable of appreciating the merits of a 
particular religion; but the untutored Indian 

o 3 

■»"^ u wi".V" 


lives in no such element ; he has to be civilised 
at the same time that he is converted, and from 
past experience it is easy to see that the at- 
tempt is as destructive to him as it is fruitless 
to ourselves. 



On the foUowing morning the frigate steamed 
slowly out of the bay of Nookoora, and headed to 
the north. Quickly the inviting shores receded 
from my gaze, and that while I gave utterance 
to a heart-felt prayer for the preservation of the 
happy children of that favoured land from the 
farther encroachments of civilization. But how 
vain the hope ! Nookoora will soon be laid de- 
solate, and its people wither away before, to 
them, the pestilence ; and instead of the joyous 
clamour of the feast, men will contend together 
for the base possession of lucre, and all the vice 


and cruelty, the woe and misery — all the wretch- 
edness and calamity of our enlightened system 
of SQpiety, will hiss upon the as yet unpolluted 
air of that far-oflf Eden. 


J. Billing, Fiinter and Stereotyper, QuUdford, Surrey. 




Second Edition, price lOs. 6d. cloth. 



Dedicated, by permiBsion, to the Right Hon. Sir Edward Bulwer 

Ljtton, Bart. 

With a Map and lUuatration by the Author. 

** So little is known of British Columbia, a tenitorj that promises 
to open up an immense field of enterprize to the mother country, 
that Mr. Comwallis maj fairly congratulate himself upon being, if 
not the only, at least the most modern, historian of the colony. Mr 
Comwallis tells us in pleasant language, how he wandered from Cali- 
fornia to New Columbia, what he saw there, and what, in his opinion, 
are the prospects of emigrants, whether as diggers or agriculturists. 
As a handbook to British Columbia, this volume, which is dedicated, 
by permission, to the Colonial Secretary, may be recommended as 
authentic, useful, and well timed." — Morning Post. 

** Mr. Kinahan Comwallis, a gentleman who has had considerable 
experience of the gold fields of Australia and who graphically de- 
scribed what he saw and learnt in his work called ' Yarra Yarra,' has 
lately returned from British Columbia, and having been present 
almost from the first at the golden district bordering on the Frazer 
Biver, has just published a very interesting account of his sojourn 
there. The work is exceedingly opportune. It is very spiritedly 
written, and will amuse as well as instruct, and necessarily obtain 
an immense circulation." — Observer . 

'' The book is full of information as to the best modes existing or 
expected of reaching these enviable regions, and of many matters 
of commerce, trade, and production. The book is therefore not 
merely interesting but instructive, and we are glad to find so useful 
a collection of facts on a movement pregnant with events of which 
we can as yet only dimly appreciate the full consequences."— Afonun^ 
Chromcie, ' " 



" The book gives all the information it is possible to obtain re- 
specting the new colony. It is altogether of a most interesting and 
instructive character." — Star. 

" Historical and descriptive of British Columbia. It will be found 
both entertaining and useful." — Sunday Time$. 

** There is information in the volume to render it acceptable.'' 
— AtAetueum, 

'* A highly useful work. The chapters on the ascent of the 
Fraxer, and the bivouac beyond the Forks, will be found particularly 
interesting " — NetoM qf the World, 

** A book on emigration from the pen of one who knows what he 
is writing is in the higesth degree acceptable, because we find in it more 
of practice and less of theory. The book is interspenied with much 
that is animated and interesting, while the geographical position, 
climate, and peculiarities of the colony are thoroughly elucidated. 
As a handbook to British Columbia, nothing could be more useful, 
instructive, or valuable ; and as such to that class we particularly 
commend it.'' — Weekly Mailj 

** No wonder that this book has gone through a first edition, when 
we consider the importance of the subject and the admirable manner 
in which it is handled. Truthful delineation of the state and re- 
souroes of this newly discovered treasure-land is its great charac> 
teristic. As a useful and almost necessary appendage to the emigrant 
this work is entitled to the highest praise; while to those who '* live 
at home at ease/ we can cordially recommend it, as containing 
the most animated and interesting descriptions of a country which 
may ere long vie with, if not eclipse the golden regions of Australia 
and California. We lately noticed, in most eulogistic terms, the 
well-known poem by the same author, entitled *■ Yarra, Yarra,' and 
happy are we to find that in Mr. Cornwallis's case it is not poetat 
et proBterea niftiL The New £1 Dorado will outlive all ephemeral 
productions of the hour, and become a book of reference in the 
standard library of travels." — Sporting Magazine, 

" There is a good deal of smart light writing. We can recom- 
mend it to those who are curious as to the general features which such 
a region presents, and looking for amusement.'' — Press, 

** With all the graphic advantages of a personal narrative, he has 
gathered a considerable amount of information respecting the country, 
its inhabitants, natural productions, and resources, which will doubt* 
less be found useful to future adventurers, who will thus go there 
furnished with all it is possible to convey through the medium of a 
work intended to be amusing as well as useful. The appendix com- 
prehends a large amount of local and statistical matter, valuable 
because it is authentic ; and a coloured map of that region and Van- 
couver places before the reader a complete plan and guide to the 
most important localities named in the x^xiJ^^^IHspateh, 


'' It is a jeiy interesting, and valuable work. Extracts from itfare 
beginning to plentifullj abound in our papers." — Toronto Globe, 

** All testimonies, from the very pleasant and interesting brok of 
Mr. Comwallis to the last correspondence receiyed, agree in attri- 
buting great capabilities of producing wealth, both agricultural and 
mineral, to the district of Columbia." — £jttract from a leader in the 

^* Mr. Comwallii^s book will repay perusal. It contains twenty^- 
three chapters on the new gold moTement, its dazzling prospects, the 
physical geography and natural resources of this land of the magic 
spell, discusses the question of railway communication, and gires us 
animated pictures, of the gold hunters' life. There are some glimpses 
also afforded us into the manners and beliefs of the Indians." — JTest- 
minster Heview, 

In 2 vols., 21s. cloth. • 



A Novel. 
A new and cheaper Library Edition, in 2 Vols., price lOt,, ia now readff. 

'* It is a bold, clever book. There is a vigour and exuberance 
throughout, and in some of the scenes a graphic power and reality. 
The author has talent and vigour, and the power of writing an amus- 
ing story." — Athentmm. 

" A tale so fall of incident, developing so much of character, can 
hardly fail to be interesting ; but that interest is greatly enhanced 
when, as in the present case, the narrative is well sustained, and the 
portraits of the various personages are drawn with vigour, and no or- 
dinary ability.'*— Oi«tfr»^, 

'^ The author of this novel has evidently seen much of life, and, more- 
over, possesses the ability to give vivid reflections of what he has seen. 
There is, consequently, much to admire in the course of the story ; and 
whether in the old world or the new, at home or at the antipodes, he 
keeps alive the reader^s attention, and affords pleasant entertainment. 
Considerable talent is displayed in the production of the varied scenes, 
and the manners of society are hit off effectively therein." — News of 
the World, 

" Worked out with great ability, and no ordinary power.*' — John 



'^The author posseases a oonsummRte knowledge of the human 
heart, and of society in general, as well as the power of depicting 
scenes inTolving much depth of feeling and graphic force of de- 
scription. The characters in his book are real men and women, and 
they always move about and talk as such. The style and language 
is bold, vigorous and eloquent. Although the writer leads us into 
all kinds of company, high and low, and that in many different parts 
of the world, he is always elegant, and our sympathies are always 
with him.*' — Dublin Paper » 

** Far superior to the ordinary volumes of the circulating library. 
Mr. Comwallis has evidently travelled much and seen much of the 
world, and some of the best parts of his story are, probably, scenes 
which he has himself witnessed. We have spoken well of Mr. Com- 
wallis's poem, ' Yarra Yarra,' and recognise in him the art of writing 
well.** — Literary Gazette. 

^* It possesses the merit of boldness, vigour, and ease of style. The 
style is of a free and dashing order, and there is a large amount of 
very clever writing in the novel. That there is some vivid pictorial 
matter is evident enough from the following extract." — Dispatch. 

<« Now * Howard Plunkett' is a unique work. The greater the 
rarity the greater the value. There are no bulls in the tale, yet the 
author's mind seems to be one huge reservoir of bulls held in solution. 
There is a genial incoherency, an audacious impossibility, a simplicity 
— ^to speak of which as infantine would be to make it months too old 
— and a bubbling gaiety which is indescribable, and which renders the 
whole quite unparalleled. The book must be read to be understood. 
The elopement and the incidents that followed are described at great 
length, but we cannot enter upon their details further than to remark 
that no part of the book displays more conspicuously one of 'the 
author's greatest excellencies. He makes his characters talk as 
people really do talk. Thus, for instance, only one sentence of the 
bride's conversation after her marriage is recorded, but then it is just 
what a real Angelina would have said : * She repeated over and over 
again, '* 1 really do wonder what Aunt Foster will say." ' . . . . In 
conclusion, the tale is brought up to a date nearer that of publication 
than any we ever remember to have read. It carries us up to the 
September of the present year, and the concluding chapter gives us 
the opinions of Captain Singer, the father of Angelina, on the 
Indian Mutiny." — Saturday Meview. 




A Poetical KarratiTe, in Thirteen Books. Fifth and cheap Edi- 
tion ; Price 2s., illustrated boards. 

" Mr. Comvallis has done for Aboriginal Australia as a poet what 
Fenimore Cooper did for the North American Indian as a novelist. 
He has immortalised the tribe who peopled the Port Philip plains, 
and not that alone, but he has graphically described the Aborigines, 
and their customs generally. He has imbued localities with a lore 
hitherto unrecorded, and which will ever retain its interest, and that 
he has done in poetry as musically sweet and elevating as it is bold, 
original and picturesque. The work is not alone confined to Aus- 
tralia, but ranges far and wide, thus giving scope for the exercise of 
that descriptive and imaginative genius which the author so preemi- 
nently displays, and which, like bursts of sunlight over the tropical 
landscape, gives brilliancy to his many pages.'* — Sydney Joumal, 
August Aih,\^^. 

*' We have already spoken well of Mr. Comwallis's poem ' Yarra 
Yarra/ and are glad to find by this new edition, that the public agree 
with VL%"— Literary Oautte, 

" It is a book that will be read — yes, and relished — by many. Its 
very wildness has a charm for such of our feelings as are unsophisti- 
cated, and the boldness wiih which it breaks through all conventional 
restraint is refreshing in these days of civilization worship. It is 
misty, but gleams of brilliant light traverse the haze, and strains of 
Nature's sweetest music blend with the confusion. Mr. Cornwallis is 
a bold and honest writer, and his work displays some very high ima- 
ginative qualities, with vast and varied experience of men and coun- 
tries."— iZ/us^ro^A/ JVmcw o/ ^A« World. 

" This poetical narrative is bold, picturesque, and full of ardent 
feelings. What the author had to do, he has done well. Yarra Yarra 
bas been already noticed in our columns. It has arrived at the honour 
of a fifth edition, which speaks considerably in favour of the poem.'' — 

*^ This clever poem, which on its first appearance attracted some 
attention, has reached its fifth edition, a circumstance which goes fiur 
to confirm the verdict passed by the public upon its merit. It loses 
none of its interest by reperusal. The verse, is smooth and flowing, 
and the interest of the subject retains its original freshness." — Weekly 

m f 


'^ The plan and execution of this volume, which has already gone 
through five editions, are entitled to the highest commendation. The 
subject, Australia, in itself so interesting, and so fitted for poetical 
expansion and illustration, is treated with no less judgment than 
skill, and the author fully succeeds in awakening the most deli- 
cate feelings of our nature. The stoiy of his love for Quilah Quah 
is very naturally introduced, and her melancholy fate patheti- 
cally described; man's natural affection for the land of his birth oc- 
cupies a few interesting pages. The fondness with which we recur 
to pleasures long past, and to Mends separated by death, the requiem 
to the fallen brave, are touched upon with uncommon felicity. The 
author^s address to Nature, * Oft h<w$ I stood and viewed fair Phc^bus 
risdy* is animated and poetical ; and, in a strain equally flowing, sweet 
and affecting, Mr. Comwallis soliloquises over the waters of the Amo. 
The observations on Australia will be read with great satisfaction, as 
they prove that the writer's prose is as animated, just, and instructive, 
as his poetry is spirited and characteristically appropriate." — Sporting 

Sixth Thousand, in Fancy Boards, price Is. 6d. 



A Nouvelettd. 



In one volume^ price 5s. 


By W. Wright, Esq. 

" A pleasant, gossiping book on the subject, with authentic 
facts gleaned from sources which could be depended on, and 
worthy to be remembered, relating to angling in all its branches." 
— Lancet. 

'* Mr. Wright's book will be really acceptable : it is not a 
tissue of theories, but a book of facts, and is both amusing and 
instructing/'— J[>at/y TeUgrapfi, 

In one Yolume, price ds. 


By Mrs. Agar. 

'* Nothing can be more appropriate than this little Tolume, from 
which the young, whilst celebrating the festival of Christmas, 
will learn how their forefathers Yenerated and fought to preserve 
those places hallowed by the presence of the Saviour." — Guardian. 

In one volume, price 78. 6d. 



By an Indian Missionary. 

" ' The Indian Religions,' from the boldness, truth, and saga- 
city of its views, and its accumulation of authority upon the sub- 
ject, should constitute the handbook of all concerned in the aflBurs 
of India." 

In three vols, post 8vo., 1^. lis. 6d. 


By Lord B»*«****, 
Author of "^Masters and Workmen/' <* The Fane of Life,'* fta 


In one volume 8to«, price 10b. 6d. 


By Mrs. Crowe, 
Author of '< Susan Hopley," " The Night Side of Nature/' &c. 

** We refer the curious in these matters to the book itself: all 
who have chanced to see the former works of this authoress will 
do well to peruse it." — EngliahwomanU Review, 


A Novel, in three volumes, by G. P. B. Jambs, Esq. 
Author of " Richelieu," " Henry of Guise," &c. &c. 

*' None of Mr. Jameses former productions have been more 
widely read, or more generally admired, than the present will be. 
The narrative once commenced, it requires some resolution to lay 
the book aside, even for a moment." — Liverpool Albion, 

*' Let no reader take up this, the very best of Mr. James's 
novels, and skim its pages without reflection. There are maxims 
and ideas in its contents to make him rise from the perusal a better 
man.'' — Soottuh Press, 

In two volumes 8vo., price 21s. 


By Mrs. Edmund Hbathcotb. 

" This tale of Nova Scotia possesses a pleasing intoest, which 
will lead the reader on from the first page to Uie last" — NawU 
and Military Gazette, 

*^ It is creditable alike to the author's taste and literary abili- 
ties." — Morning Post, 

*' This novel, as our readers may judge, is full of incident. The 
language in which it is written is unaffected, and characterized by 
general good feeling. The moral is sound, and from the first 
page to the last there is not one objectionable passage." — Morning 

In two volumes 8vo., price 21b. 


By Mrs. Phjllipson. 

*^ Mrs. Phillipson is well known as a poetess, and a strong 
poetic feeling is displayed in the volumes before us, which are 
replete with graceful writing. We cordially hope the fair au- 
thoress will write again." — Scottish Press, 

In one Tolume 8?o^ price lOs. 6d. 


" A tale of country life> and describing the mode of life in rural 
circles a little removed from the cottager, but the incidents are of 
the simplest description. The author, howeyer, greatly excites 
the reader's attention/' — IJonal and Military Gazette 

In three yolumes post 8?o., 1/. Us. €d. 


By Mrs. Mackbnzib Dawibls, 

Author of "The Old Maid of the Family," <« My Sister Minnie,'* 

** The Old Home," &c. 

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By Edward Fitzball, Esq. 

" One of the most curious collections of histrionic incidents 
ever put together. Fitzball numbers his admirers not by hun- 
dreds and thousands, but by millions."— £»v«i}9oo/ Albion. 

"A most wonderful book, about all. sorts of persons."-^jBtr- 
mingham Journal, 

^This is the most interesting, startling, and instructive and 
affecting biography we have had the pleasure of reading for many 
years. Incident, example, experience, and moral abound in every 
page." — Lineoln Free Preea, 

" We scarcely remember any biography so replete with anec- 
dotes of the most agreeable description. Everybody in the the- 
atrical world, and a great many out of it, figure in this admixable, 
nature-painting biography." — Globe. 

'* These are volumes to please every one and offend none; they 
will be read by thousands. This book, hearty, genial, and often 
noble in tone, sparkling with incident, and never dull, is dieunex- 
aggerated life of a good and gifted man." — ConslihUional Press, 

** The name of Fitzball has been identified with every souj- 
stirring drama of the last half century. Readers will find amuse- 
ment, interest, and instruction in every page; and the aneodotes 
of stage-life and celebrities are most graphically told. It will 
amuse every class of readers." — The Review, 

'^A valuable addition to our. dramatic literature; not only 
actors, but the general readers, will be agreeably ohaimed by its 
picturesque pages." — Bra,